operation of any computing devices is impossible without control programs.These are operating systems.What is a computer?It is a complex system consisting of a large number of various specialized units-units called components.For example, the power supply converts the AC mains voltage of 220 volts in the number of permanent, required for the functioning of the components;graphics card processes the images and displays them on the screen;the CPU is engaged in calculations and so on. In other words, the computer system is a set of hardware components combined into a single device.To coordinate the work of all units, an operating system needs.An important point: on the computer can be set to any of them (based on the bit and other requirements).
To simplify the understanding of the term "operating system" can use the analogy of a man: the hardware of the computer - this body;control programs - a nervous system and brain with a set of reflexes;and application program represented thoughts, intentions, idea.Formed command hierarchy: the thought - reflexes - the body (the action).Of course, this explanation is true only with reservations, but allows "fingers" to explain what operating systems.In fact, they represent a kind of buffer between program components and the user.
No application can not be performed outside the operating system.Even at the dawn of computing, when the Windows, Linux, Mac OS work has been possible thanks to DOS.By the way, the acronym stands for Disk Operating System.
By way of operation, all such solutions can be divided into three groups: real-time, division, batch jobs.The first allowed the intervention of the user (or external signals) in the process of performing calculations.Accordingly, the result changes.Time sharing involves the execution of multiple tasks, but with fast switching between processor that creates the illusion of continuity.The intervention is also possible.But batch processing is to form a list of jobs and sending them to perform.Correct data can only intervals between packets.
Any operating system provides three types of interaction: the user and the application software and hardware, data flows between them.For user convenience, it was created a graphical interface - intuitive set of pictures, icons, working with which man generates commands for the system (in automatic "transparent" mode).All modern solutions - namely graphics.These include the family of Windows, Linux and the operating system Apple.Working from the command line is now mostly sold as a supplement.Exception - highly specialized devices.
Since most people did not wonder how it is installed on the computer running the operating system, the selection is carried out primarily by the convenience of the interaction with the interface.It is different not only in appearance, but also the language.Thus, the Russian operating system is more popular in the countries of the former Soviet Union.