We all certainly heard that Tatars - Siberian, Kazan and the Crimea - a nation that long ago inhabited the territory of our vast country.Today some of them assimilated, and now they are quite difficult to distinguish from the Slavs, but there are those who, despite everything, continue to honor the traditions and culture of their ancestors.
This article aims to give as accurate as possible description of such a representative of the multinational Russian people, as Russian Tatar.The reader will learn much new, and sometimes even unique information about these people.The article will be very interesting and cognitively.Not for nothing because today customs Tatars considered one of the oldest and most unusual on the planet.
General information about the people
Tatars in Russia is a nation that is densely inhabited central European part of our country, as well as the Urals, the Volga region, Siberia and the Far East.Outside the country, they meet in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.
According to scientists, ethnographers, their approximate number at the moment is 5523 thousand. People.Speaking generally about the people, the Tatars, it should be noted, can be separated by their ethnic and territorial basis into three main categories: the Volga-Ural, Siberian and Astrakhan.
The latter, in turn, tend to call themselves sibirtatarlarami or sibirtarami.Only in Russia their home to approximately 190 thousand. People, and about 20 thousand. Can be found in some countries of Central Asia and Kazakhstan.
Siberian Tatars.Ethnic groups
Among these peoples are the following ethnic groups:
- Tobol and Irtysh comprising kurdaksko-Sargatskoe, Tyumen, and yaskolbinskih Tara Tatars;
- Barabinsk, which includes Barabinsk-turazhskie, tereninsko-Choya and lyubeysko-tunusskie Tatars;
- Tomsk, consisting of Kalmyks, eushtintsev and chats.
Anthropology and language
Contrary to popular belief, in anthropological terms Tatars considered extremely heterogeneous.
The fact is that, for example, Siberian Tatars in their physical appearance very similar to the so-called South Siberian type, belonging to the great Mongoloid race.The Tartars, permanently residing in Siberia, as well as those who inhabit the Urals and the Volga region, speak their own Tatar language, which belongs to the Kipchak subgroup of the very common Turkic (Altaic language family).
They once formed a literary language based on the so-called middle dialect.According to experts, writing, called the Turkic runes, it can be attributed to one of the most ancient on the planet.
Siberian Tatars Culture and objects of national wardrobe
Not everyone knows that in the very beginning of the last century the locals Tatar settlements were not underwear.In the views on this subject and Russian Tatars were significantly different from each other.Worn under clothing last served quite spacious pants and shirt.Both men and women wore over national beshmets, which are very extensive coats with long sleeves.
Also very popular are jackets that were made, both with sleeves or without them.Particular preference is given to long time special local Chapanov robe.Their Tatar women were made of strong homespun.From the cold of winter clothes are, of course, are not saved, so the cold season of the trunks getting any warm coats and fur coats are called in the local language or tones tunami respectively.
Somewhere in the turn of the century in vogue Russian fur coat, fur coats, sheepskin coats and's coat.So dressed men.But women preferred to dress up in folk patterns lavishly decorated dress.By the way, it is believed that the Kazan Tatars assimilated rather than Siberia.At least now the first in terms of clothes virtually indistinguishable from the indigenous Slavs, while the latter are kept quite apart, and fashionable they still are those who adhere to national traditions.
How does the traditional dwelling of the people
Surprisingly, Russian and Tatars, long lived side by side, have a totally different idea of the construction of the so-called home.For centuries, their settlements last called yurts and auls.These villages, in most cases located on the shores of lakes and rivers.
It should be noted that local mayors and disposed of carefully monitored to ensure that all the streets, whether a city or a humble village, located in a straight line, crossing strictly at right angles.Kazan Tatars, by the way, this principle has never adhered to.They are the center of the village was a nearly perfect circle with radiating streets in all directions-rays.
House Tatars living in Siberia, are still on both sides of the road, and only in some cases, for example in the pond, there is a one-sided development.The huts were made of wood, but the mosque, usually constructed of brick.
the general background has always stood postal stations, schools, shops and stalls, as well as the forge.
Tatar decorated home is rarely any patterns.Only sometimes you can find geometric shapes applied to window frames, eaves of houses or gates entire estate.And this is no accident.Depictions of animals, birds and especially a man was forbidden by Islam.
As for the interior decoration, even today modern Tatars Moscow, St. Petersburg and other large cities of our country very often decorate their houses and apartments in low-legged tables and intricate Cupboards.
At all times, the traditional occupation of this group of Tatars was agriculture.It existed in the traditions of the people before the arrival of Russian.Its features are still determined by the geography of the place of residence.For example, in the southern part of Siberia primarily grew millet, wheat, oats and rye.In the northern territories were at a premium and continues to lake and river fishing.
cattle breeding can be practiced in the forest-steppe areas or on the steppe solonetz, who at all times were known for their grasses.If allowed to land, and vegetation of the region was relatively wild, Siberian Tatars, unlike the same Tatar always bred horses and cattle.
Talking about the crafts, not to mention leather goods, making especially strong ropes made from a special linden bast, weaving baskets, knitting nets and almost mass production for their own needs, and for the exchange of birch bark utensils, boats, carts, and skisled.
Beliefs representatives of this nation
Ever since the 18th century, the Russian Siberian Tatars majority are Sunni Muslims, and today their religious center is located in the city of Ufa.The most important and widely celebrated holiday is Eid al-Adha and Eid al-Ramadan.
Almost immediately after the arrival of a substantial part of Russian Tatars converted to Christianity and began to practice Orthodoxy.However, it should be noted that these representatives of the nation, as a rule, cut off from their historical ethnic groups and continued to assimilate with the Russian population.
More about until the second half of the 19th century in the villages en masse there were ministers of various ancient pagan cults, shamanism flourished, and the local witch doctors treated patients.We met and sacrifice, during which was used and a special drum beater in the form of blades.
way, it should be noted that shamans can be both men and women.
Beliefs, myths and legends
His supreme deities Siberian Tatars believed kudaya and Tangri.It is also believed in the existence of evil spirits underground Aina, who brought trouble, sickness and even death.
Myths show and special spirits idol.They are, according to legend, had to be made of birch bark and twigs, and then leave in a special place in the woods, most often in the hollows of trees.It was believed that they could protect the entire village of misfortunes.
often happens and so that just such wooden idols had to nailing the roofs of houses.They were supposed to protect all households.
was believed that the spirits of the dead can attack the village, so the locals from time to time made of special fabric dolls Kurchakov.They had to be kept in wicker baskets under a spreading tree near the cemetery.
It should be noted that even today the Tatars in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan and Ufa with great pride boast delicacies and delights of its cuisine.What's so special?Yes, actually, nothing special, except, perhaps, the fact that virtually everything here is actually very tasty.
in their food Siberian Tatars prefer mostly meat (pork, elk, rabbit and poultry), dairy (ayran, cream, butter, cheese and cottage cheese) products.
huge popularity of soups.Now visitors Tatar trendy restaurants gladly bought Shurpa or rather a kind of flour soup, as well as the first national dish of millet, rice or fish.
Conventional cereal milk based or water are prepared by adding barley or oats.
Tatars - famous lovers flour.At the first opportunity is to try them cakes, pies and specialties, something vaguely resembling our pancakes.
Social Organization of Siberian Tatars
During the reign of the Siberian Khanate have given people existed the so-called tribal relations with these elements are present in the territorial community.Initially, there were two such communities: the village and the town.Management of the Company is held by means of democratic gatherings.By the way, mutual aid this nation - this is not uncommon, and the usual order of things.
impossible not to mention the existence of tuguma, which was a whole group of families with established family ties between them.This administrative body is usually used to control both family and domestic relations, and led the execution of various kinds of folk and religious ceremonies.
modern Tatar education system
In general, today the issue is one of the most pressing.There is nothing surprising in the fact that the Siberian Tatars are making a lot of effort to attach their babies for national traditions and centuries-old culture.
Despite this assimilation is still underway.Only a small part of the Tatars has the ability to send their children to summer in the village to the grandparents, and thereby gives them the chance to take part in national celebrations or to practice the language.A huge proportion of adolescents to stay in town for a long time speaks only in Russian and has a very vague idea about the culture of their ancestors.
in mass settlements of Tatars, as a rule, newspapers are published in their native language, several times a week;both radio and television broadcast a series of programs in the Tatar.In some schools, however, it is mainly rural, held special lessons.
Unfortunately, to get higher education in the Tatar language in Russia is impossible.However, since last year in the university introduced a new specialty "Tatar language and literature."It is believed that the future teachers graduating the faculty will be able to teach the Tatar language in the school.