Azov Sea: challenges and fun facts.

Azov Sea is a unique object of the environment.Everyone understands the importance of keeping it clean as a source of not only material but also spiritual wealth.This once-a remarkable natural site in need of serious protection.

Sea of ​​Azov, the problem is - poor ecological state as a result of economic activities of the coastal countries, is experiencing hard times.In the past decade it has significantly decreased the amount of environmental activities that, without exaggeration, threatens disaster.

In Soviet times the state implemented relatively successful policy of protection of the hydrosphere.In the 90s both Russia and Ukraine have undergone major economic and political changes, against which environmental issues were abandoned.However, because of the economic downturn and decreased burden on the ecosystem.

Once touched the region's economic growth, the adverse impact on the environment has increased.By 2008, the volume of industrial production in Russia and Ukraine exceeded the level that existed in the USSR.Proportionally increased and getting into the sea from sewage waste and other pollutants.

What is the Sea of ​​Azov

It refers to the side of the Black Sea basin from the north-east, connecting with the last Kerch Strait.This sea is very shallow in the world.The average depth of the Azov Sea in the most "serious" areas does not exceed 13.5 m and the width of the strait - 4.2 km.The ends of his located near latitude 45 ° 12'30 "and 47 ° 17'30", longitude 33 ° 38 'and 39 ° 18'.In general, the average depth of the Azov Sea ranges from 6.8 to 8 meters.Maximum length of its 343 kilometers, the maximum distance of 231 km in width.The area of ​​sea surface - 37 605 km, and the shoreline stretched on 1472 km.

Sea of ​​Azov, the temperature of which is subject to large seasonal changes, is a relatively small body of water.By its topography is flat with low sea shores.Geographic location certainly gives it its own characteristics.Perhaps not everyone knows that the most continental in the world - namely the Sea of ​​Azov.Its temperature in summer +26 ... + 24 ° C.In winter it freezes in whole or in part, in the spring the ice is carried away through the Strait into the Black Sea.

salinity of the Azov Sea is low enough.On average, it is three times less than normal salinity of ocean waters.This value is about 1 ppm in the confluence Don and increases to 10.5 ppm closer to the central portion.In the Kerch Strait salinity of the Azov Sea reaches a maximum - 11.5 ppm.

What do we know about its inhabitants?Sea of ​​Azov, the biological resources that were originally quite large, now has 103 species of fish.Plankton biomass reaches a size of 200 grams per square meter.m.

Ecological problems of the Azov Sea

main negative effect of anthropogenic factors are falling from the rivers untreated sewage containing waste.Former world leader in fisheries, the sea is now lost all its value.Now the content of phenols exceeded MPC by 7 times, thiocyanates - 12.6.

main sources of pollution of the sea - ports and industrial companies Mariupol.Metallurgical Combine "Azovstal" emits annually in its waters more than 800 million cubic meters of wastewater.

They revealed excess of MPC of nitrogen, iron, copper, zinc, oil products.Another major polluter - commercial port of Mariupol.His treatment plant completely ineffective - in the waters of indicators of pollution is higher than anywhere else.

worry environmentalists

specialists concerned growth of volumes of sulfur, an overload which is conducted in the ports of Ukraine, as well as the deterioration of built half a century ago systems intake of water, the lack in many villages and towns clean sewage systems, which is why directly into the sea gets dirtywater.According to statistics, the amount of annually discharged into the Sea of ​​Azov effluent reaches 5 billion cubic meters.

marine pollution by oil products due to shipping and port activities has taken catastrophic.

concentration of them in the Sea of ​​Azov places exceeds all conceivable limits.Pesticide content reaches 40 mg / l.Because of the spilled oil is degraded oxygen exchange, aquatic organisms are poisoned by pesticides.There is mass fish mortality.Water security zone contains a wealth of industrial and household waste.

Dangerous fishing

other environmental problems related to the Azov Sea and its inhabitants.Bottom trawling has long been officially banned, but, nevertheless, is used almost everywhere.As a result of bottom-dwelling places are destroyed fish habitat, killed mollusks filter feeders - fish food supply.The rising haze for several kilometers reduces the transparency of the water.

Only part of the fishing vessels have a work permit limited seine catch.But in fact the volume of its hide.Also often used instead of the trawl nets, thereby destroyed not only fish stocks, and the place of its breeding and feeding.Poaching in recent years has led to a decrease in production by 5 times.

Other points

What else bothers ecologists?Weight issues, and a list of them is far from exhausted.This construction of reservoirs on the Don and Kuban (the main rivers of the Azov Sea), gradually turns into a giant landfill.And clogging chemicals surrounding soil as a result of the introduction of irrigated agriculture from sowing rice.And the uncontrolled discharge of pesticides.

In addition, a negative impact on the Azov Sea problem intensive construction on the coast of the plurality of lodges and resorts, which is carried out without observance of any health and environmental standards.This disrupted the natural state of the beaches and reduces their potential.

also a serious problem - dumping, t. E. Waste disposal of ships and aircraft in the sea or the planned destruction.Thus there is a sea water pollution with mercury and lead, which tend to accumulate in the upper layers.

Azov Sea - problems and solutions

The only possible way to solve urgent problems, scientists, environmentalists consider a radical change in priorities for the region.Concludes it must to minimize the production and the transition to the fisheries and recreation.The port and transport infrastructure requires tight control of Ports and Shipping, the decline in traffic of hazardous and dangerous goods, modernization of wastewater treatment plants and construction of new ones.

can help reduction of water consumption industries, increasing the penalties for the unauthorized release of waste.

in coastal regions require revision of the principles of agriculture, abandonment of crops that are grown using pesticides and dangerous fertilizers, rehabilitation of nursery grounds and its migration routes.

necessary measures to toughen laws regarding the protection of the coastal zone and the regular monitoring of the ecological state of the coastal and marine environment, a categorical ban on the discharge into the waters of the sea of ​​untreated sewage and drainage water.

What today there are ways to clean it?

physical and chemical methods

Mechanical cleaning is used when you want to remove insoluble solids.This is done by straining, filtration, sedimentation and removal of suspended particles spin and centrifugal force.

Chemical methods are used for the elimination of the water-soluble substances.For this purpose the reagents, reducing toxicity or solubility of contaminants.Chemical Methods: The oxidation and reduction, neutralization, removal of metal ions.

Physico-chemical methods, t. E. Combined methods allow to get rid of impurities in the form of emulsions and suspensions, dissolved substances (both organic and inorganic).The names of basic methods: coagulation, ion exchange, deodorization, adsorption, degassing, flotation, ultrafiltration, and others.

thermal method is used when you want to remove from wastewater organic matter and mineral salts.This occurs by concentrating the effluent and sludge are separated from oxidation of organic origin with the catalysts under pressure, and neutralization of fire.

biochemical means and methods

Such methods exist for cleaning water from most therein dissolved organic and partly inorganic elements.This process is built on the ability of some plants and microorganisms consume harmful substances such as food.

This cleaning process has two stages, the flow rate of which varies:

1. Adsorption of dissolved impurities and fine micro-organisms.

2. Destruction of harmful substances intracellularly by a chemical process.

For almost non-oxidizing inorganic substances set a maximum concentration.

Where and how proceeds biochemical treatment?

This method is possible and in vitro and in vivo.The latter include the irrigation field, biological ponds, filtration, and so on. D.

field irrigation - a special platform, combining the cultivation of useful crops with sewage.If nothing is grown, it is the field of filtration.Soil methods are very popular as a way of intensification of crop production.

Biological ponds complete the complex treatment facilities.This shallow ponds, broken into sections.They work only in the summer.

conclusion - in order to avoid an ecological catastrophe, requires a clear state policy to protect the marine ecosystem.If you do not start now to save the Sea of ​​Azov, the problem may become irreversible.