France - a country that is ahead of the others.It was here that the first revolution took place, and not only social, but also literary, koi influenced the development of art in the whole world.French writers and poets achieved unprecedented heights.Interestingly, it was in France that the work of many geniuses were evaluated during his lifetime.Today we talk about the most important writers and poets XIX - early XX century, as well as unveil the curtain of the interesting moments of their lives.
Victor Hugo (1802-1885)
unlikely that other French poets can catch up with the scale of Victor Hugo.The writer, who was not afraid to raise ostrosotsialnye theme in his novels, and at the same time, the romantic poet, he lived a long life, a rich creative achievements.Hugo as a writer was not just recognized in his lifetime - he got rich doing this craft.
After the "Notre Dame" his fame only increased.Are there many in the world of writers who were able to survive 4 years outside their own behalf?After 79 year of life (birthday of Victor Hugo) on Avenue Eylau erected a triumphal arch - in fact, under the windows of the writer.Through it, the day has passed 600 thousand admirers of his talent.Soon the street was renamed the Avenue Victor Hugo.
behind Victor Hugo left not only fine works and a large inheritance, 50,000 francs of which were bequeathed to the poor, but also a strange point in the will.He ordered to rename the capital of France - Paris - in Gyugopolis.Actually, it is the only item that was not executed.
Theophile Gautier (1811-1872)
When Victor Hugo struggled with classicist criticism, Theophile Gautier was one of the brightest and most faithful supporters.French poet received an excellent replenishment of their ranks: Gautier, not only perfectly mastered the technique of writing, but also opened a new era in the art of France, which subsequently influenced the entire world.
enduring his first collection in the best tradition of the romantic style, Theophile Gautier at the same time excluded from the traditional themes of poetry and poetry changed the vector.He did not write about the beauty of nature, the eternal love and politics.Not only that - the poet proclaimed the technical complexity of the verse most important component.This meant that his poems, staying in shape romantic, in fact they were not - have given way to a sense of form.
last collection, "Enamels and cameos", which is considered the pinnacle of creativity Theophile Gautier, came as a manifesto "Parnassian school" - "Art".He proclaimed the principle of "art for art's sake", which French poets accepted unconditionally.
Arthur Rimbaud (1854-1891)
French poet Arthur Rimbaud inspired his life and poetry more than one generation.In adolescence, he repeatedly ran away from home in Paris, where he met with Paul Verlaine, sent him the poem "The Drunken Ship".Friendly relations between poets soon grew into love.This was the reason for leaving the family Verlaine.
In life, Rimbaud came just 2 collections of poetry and separately - the debut verse "Drunken Ship", which immediately brought him recognition.It is interesting that the poet's career was very short: all the poems he wrote at the age of 15 to 21 years.After Arthur Rimbaud simply refused to write.Flatly.And he became a merchant, the end of life by selling spices, weapons and ... people.
famous French poet Paul Eluard and Guillaume Apollinaire are recognized ancestor of Arthur Rimbaud.His work and the person inspired by Henry Miller's essay "Time killers" and Patti Smith constantly talking about the poet and his poems quotes.
Paul Verlaine (1844-1896)
French poets of the late XIX century, elected Paul Verlaine his "king", but from the king in it was not enough and rowdy revelers Verlaine described the ugly side of life - the dirt, the darkness, sin and passion.One of the "fathers" of impressionism and symbolism in literature, he wrote poetry, the beauty of the sound which can not pass any one translation.
no matter how vicious was the French poet Rimbaud played a huge role in his fate.After becoming acquainted with the young Arthur Paul took him under his wing.He was looking for the poet housing, even while shooting for his room, though he was not wealthy.Their affair lasted several years: after Verlaine left the family, they traveled, drank and indulged in pleasure as they could.
When Rimbaud decided to get away from her lover, Verlaine shot him in the wrist.Although the victim refused the application, Paul Verlaine was sentenced to two years in prison.After that, he never recovered.Because of the inability to abandon the company of Arthur Rimbaud, Verlaine and could not go back to his wife - she was divorced and destroy it completely.
Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918)
son of a Polish aristocrat, born in Rome, owned by France's Guillaume Apollinaire.It was in Paris, he spent adolescence and adulthood, until his death.Like other French poets of the time, Apollinaire was looking for new ways and opportunities sought to shocking - and succeeded.
After the publication of prose works in the spirit of deliberate immorality and a mini-collection of poetry "Bestiary, or Orpheus motorcade", published in 1911, Guillaume Apollinaire publishes first full collection of poems "Alcohol" (1913)that immediately attracted the attention of the lack of grammar, Baroque imagery and tone differences.
Collection "Kaligrammy" went even further - all the verses that are included in this collection, written by an amazing way: the string works arranged in a variety of silhouettes.The eyes of the reader appears a woman in a hat, a dove, which soars above the fountain, vase of flowers ... This form of verse are transferred.The method, by the way, is not new - started to give more verses form the British in the XVII century, but this time Apollinaire anticipated the emergence of "automatic writing", which is so fond of Surrealists.
term "surrealism" belongs to Guillaume Apollinaire.He appeared after staging his "surreal drama" "Paps Tiresias" in 1917. The circle of poets led him from that time became known surrealists.
André Breton (1896-1966)
For Andre Breton meeting with Guillaume Apollinaire began to sign.It happened at the front, in the hospital, where the young Andre physician by training, served as a medical orderly.Apollinaire received a contusion (a shell fragment hit in the head), after which he never recovered.
From 1916, André Breton takes an active part in the work of avant-garde poetry.He met with Louis Aragon, Philippe Soupault, Tristan Tzara, Paul Eluard, discovers the poetry of Lautréamont.In 1919, after the death of Apollinaire, poets epatazhisty beginning to organize around André Breton.Also this year, it comes together with Philippe Soupault essay "Magnetic fields", written by the method of "automatic writing."
Since 1924, after the proclamation of the first Manifesto of Surrealism, André Breton becomes the head of the movement.In his house on Avenue Fontaine opens Bureau surreal studies began to publish magazines.It was the beginning of a truly international movement Looks like Office were opened in many cities around the world.
French Communist poet Andre Breton actively campaigned his supporters to join the Communist Party.He so believed in the ideals of communism, which even won a meeting with Leon Trotsky in Mexico (though at that time had already been expelled from the Communist Party).
Louis Aragon (1897-1982)
faithful ally and comrade Apollinaire, Louis Aragon became André Breton's right hand.French poet, a communist until his last breath, in 1920, Aragon published his first collection of poems, "Fireworks", written in the style of surrealism and Dadaism.
After joining the Communist Party of the poet in 1927 with the work of his Breton transformed.He is in some ways become the "voice of the party," and in 1931 prosecuted for the poem "Red Front", imbued with the spirit of a dangerous incitement.
Peru Louis Aragon also belongs to "History of the USSR."The ideals of communism, he defended until his death, although his recent work a little bit back to the traditions of realism, not colored in the "red."