The strength and courage of the Soviet people won the most terrible war of the last century.Their feat was everyday on the front, in the rear, in the field, in the partisan forests and swamps.Pages of History of the Great Patriotic erased from people's memory, this contributes to a peaceful time and a gradual withdrawal of the heroic generation.We must remember and transmit to future generations the lessons of courage and scope of the tragedy of the people.The Siege of Leningrad, the battle for Moscow, Stalingrad, Kursk, the liberation of Voronezh and every fight that war, who helped recapture inch of native land with their lives.
situation at the front
summer of 1942 was for the Germans a second chance for the restoration initiative in the fighting.A large group of troops was blocked in the northern direction (Leningrad), huge losses in the battle for Moscow significantly tempered the ardor of Hitler and brought his plans to capture lightning Soviet Union to a minimum.Now, every military operation carefully planned, conducted the regrouping of troops, preparing the way of the supply and organization of rear services.The atrocities of the Nazis in the occupied territories have stirred up a wave of guerrilla movements and the largest enemy group did not feel completely safe.Interruptions in the supply of hundreds of derailed rail cars with manpower and equipment, the complete destruction of the small German units, the transfer of intelligence regular units of the Soviet army greatly hindered the invaders.Therefore, the operation "Blau" (on the Eastern Front) was developed taking into account all possible scenarios, but even with such a competent strategic approach, the Nazis did not consider the tenacity and courage of the defenders of Voronezh.This ancient Russian city standing in the way of Hitler, but its capture and destruction, according to the Germans, did not require a significant amount of time.More surprising for them was the final battle in the city of Voronezh.Releasing it was completely achieved by active offensive operations in January 1943, but he remained "unconquered."
New targets Hitler
Due to the large territory of location of military units the Germans faced a problem of supply.The Army is constantly in need of food, clothing and fuel.To replenish the resource base was needed, which at that time were concentrated in the hands of the enemy.The capture of the Caucasus would solve the problem with the fuel and energy resources, but the Soviet command to Hitler's plans were clear, so in the East focused considerable reaction force.The crossing of the Don River to the subsequent destruction based in Voronezh, the armed forces would allow the Nazis to conduct the operation successfully "Blau" and to develop a full-scale offensive on the city of Stalingrad.Therefore, in the south-east direction of the front to the summer of 1942 they were concentrated enormous forces of the fascist army.More than half of all motorized compounds and 35-40% of infantry units involved in the Soviet-German front, put forward at the position for the realization of the dream of capturing the Führer Caucasus.June 28, 1942 the Germans launched Operation "Blau", which was foiled by Soviet troops at Stalingrad and in the city of Voronezh.The liberation from the Nazis waited Kursk, Orel, who were captured during the attack on Moscow.
attack on Voronezh
Since the beginning of the war Voronezh, like all cities of the USSR, was transferred to the military situation.Passed mass mobilization, more and more enterprises have been reoriented to military products (more than 100 names: IL-2, "Katyusha", armored trains, uniforms and so on. D.), The largest and most important for the economy were evacuated to the rear.Voronezh was preparing to repel a possible attack from the west to the Nazis.In the spring of 1942 began intensive bombing, which destroyed the tram tracks.At that moment it was the only form of transport functioning.Badly damaged the historic center of the old town of Voronezh.Street Liberation of Labour (former Vvedenskaya) with the church and the monastery lost a significant amount of historical monuments.Air Defence Division was established of the girls who lived in the area and the city itself.Most nemobilizovannyh into the regular army men (workers, teachers, students) went to the militia, which took the first blow, and the German war machine.In the Voronezh direction length of the front line it was significant, which is why the German army broke through the defense and quickly came to the borders of the city.July 6 the Nazis forced the Don and entered the suburbs of Voronezh.At this stage, the German generals cheerfully reported the capture of the city, they did not anticipate that fully capture it they did not succeed.The liberation of Voronezh January 25, 1943 is due to a lightning bridgeheads held all the defense of the Soviet war.By the time of occurrence of the Nazis in the city most of it was destroyed by bombing, burning homes and factories.Under these conditions, carried out mass evacuation of the population, the hospitals, the most important part of the assets of industrial enterprises, export of historical and cultural values.
Voronezh Liberation from Nazi invaders started from the left bank of the river.Advancing to the south and west, the Germans have not met with a proper rebuff, so I think the city captured.The right bank of the river Voronezh has been strengthened for defensive battles, regular units of the Soviet army were away for their transfer took time and a springboard for deployment.In the city were part of the NKVD, the militia battalion, regiment of 41 frontier guards and anti-aircraft gunners, who took the brunt.Most of these compounds are moved to the left bank of the river and began to build fortifications.The problem was the rest that would delay the advance of the Nazis.This made it possible to defend the river crossing Voronezh and slow down the offensive until the arrival of the German units of spare parts.In the context of urban combat Voronezh exhausting the enemy and retreated to the left bank abroad.On Stalin's orders in the Voronezh Reserve Brigade was sent to 8, consisting of Siberians.The Germans managed to gain a foothold on the right bank, but continued their advance stopped the river, or rather the impossibility of forcing.The front line stretches from the station.Otrozhka to confluence.Voronezh Don.Positions of Soviet soldiers were located in residential areas and the factory floor, it provided a good disguise.The enemy did not see the displacement units, command posts and could only guess at the number density of fire on the defenders.From the Chief of the rate order came to detain fascists on the river Voronezh, do not take positions.The Soviet Information Bureau reported on the conduct of hostilities rather vague.It was announced information about the heavy fighting in the Voronezh area.
July 4, 1942, the right-bank part of the city has been heavy fighting.Several units of the Soviet soldiers, officers, volunteers, part of the NKVD, the anti-aircraft gunners acted in Voronezh city center.Using as a cover for the city's building, they crossed to the right bank and the Nazis destroyed.The crossing was made with massive artillery support, which was fixed on the left bank.Soldiers from the river immediately rushed into battle against superior enemy forces, which had the advantage of location.Right Bank was rather steep, making it difficult for the movement of units.A desperate courage of these people has led to the fact that on July 6-7 fighting was going on the streets: Pomyalovsky, Stepan Razin, Revolution Avenue, Nikitinskaya, Engels, Dzerzhinsky, the Emancipation of Labour.Voronezh did not surrender to the invaders, but had to stop the attack, carried too much of the losses at the crossing.Surviving soldiers came back to the left bank July 10, their main objective was to strengthen defensive positions and prepare for the next attack bridgeheads.The liberation of Voronezh started from the moment of the attack and lasted seven long months.
Liberation Voronezh continued, the left bank line of defense held back the enemy from capturing the whole city.Offensive operations are not stopped, came reinforcements and Soviet troops based in the city continued to destroy the Nazis.The front line has changed several times a day, the struggle was for each quarter, street, house.German tank and infantry divisions repeatedly tried to cross the river Voronezh.The liberation of the left bank of the defense meant the conquest of the city, its grip.Otrozhenskie bridges crossing Semiluksky were subjected to constant shelling, bombing and tank attacks.The defenders are not just fought to the death, they restored the damaged structure under fire during raids.On the shore of legal counterattacks by the Nazis after Soviet troops withdrew, bringing the wounded, the refugees were, at that time the Germans tried to attack or slip of the running column.Cross the river Voronezh failed and the railway bridge, the Soviet soldiers, knowing that a long time will be able to hold back the onslaught of the enemy, wedged bridge burning composition.At night, the central span was mined and blown up.Liberation from Nazi invaders in Voronezh was due to establish a foothold, which could rely on the coming of the Soviet army.Keeping the cost of their position in life and under Chizhovka Shilovo, soldiers destroyed large enemy force.These staging areas are in the right-bank part of the city, the Germans managed to gain a foothold on them and provided strong resistance.Chizhovka soldiers called "valley of death", but capturing and holding it deprived the Germans strategic advantage, tie their actions in the central part of the city.
August, September 42
Violent clashes took place in the hospital and on campus.District City Park and Agricultural Institute pitted by bullets and shells, every piece of land is saturated with the blood of Soviet soldiers who fought for the liberation of Voronezh.Photos places of military glory have kept all the scale and brutality of the fighting.Witness and monument of those days is the Rotunda (showroom surgery department) is the only surviving building in the regional hospital.The Germans made every body in a fortified emplacement, which made it impossible to Soviet soldiers capture this strategically important object.Skirmishes continued for months, their result was the stabilization of the front line, the Germans were forced to retreat.The liberation of Voronezh, its right bank, lasted 212 days and nights.Fighting was going on in the city, its suburbs, in the settlements along the entire length of the river.
Voronezh Liberation from Nazi invaders
"Operation Little Saturn" was carefully planned and prepared by the Soviet command.In the history of warfare, it is often referred to as "Stalingrad, the Don," it was performed outstanding military leaders: Rybalko, Zhukov, AM Vasilevsky, Moskalenko, Chernyakhovsky, F.Golikov.The first offensive action made a bridgehead, which served to regroup units and remain full surround structures in the fighting.The liberation of Voronezh on January 25 was the result of Voronezh-Kastornoye operation (January 24, 1943 - February 2).60th Army under the command of Ivan Chernyakhovsky captured the city and clean it completely from the opponent's pieces.Soviet military action forced the Nazis to flee the city, leaving their positions prior to surround the Germans tried to maintain combat-ready units of the army.Long, exhausting fighting in urban areas have greatly reduced the number of German forces and undermined its fighting spirit.The reports News from 26. 01. '43 sounded the following message: as a result of the offensive by the Soviet troops of the Voronezh and Bryansk fronts was the liberation of Voronezh January 25, 1943.Photos and videos of the day reflect the unprecedented scale of destruction.The city was completely destroyed, its inhabitants, or left, or were killed by the Nazis.On the ruins of the remaining houses were so quiet that people were shaking from the noise of his own footsteps.
Hitler Voronezh was needed as a convenient springboard for further offensives in the east.Germans captured the city and could not, therefore, at the commencement of the right bank of the orders they have received about mining all the surviving high buildings.A powerful explosion destroyed museums, churches, the Palace of Pioneers, administrative buildings.All valuables left in the city, were taken to the West, including a bronze monument to Peter 1 and Lenin.The housing stock was destroyed by 96%, tram tracks and power lines destroyed, communications were not functioning.The historic city center with its wooden buildings burned down during the bombing, stone and brick buildings, the factory shop in ruins, fortified for defense.Hitler wrote that Voronezh wiped off the face of the earth, its partial recovery will take 50-70 years, he was pleased with the result.Returns from evacuation civilians rebuild the city literally brick by brick, many houses were mined, which led to casualties among the civilian population.Voronezh was among the 15 most destroyed during World War II cities.On his recovery special decree had been allocated and building materials.Voronezh Germans did not give up and ruin, he imbued with the spirit of the war, covered by the mass graves of their defenders, but alive and growing.
value for the front
Division defending Voronezh, perform multiple critical tasks.They tied a large group of enemy forces, which included not only the German units, but their allies in this war.Italian, Hungarian armies were defeated during the offensive in the direction of Voronezh.After such a defeat of Hungary (not knowing until the day of large-scale losses) withdrew from the alliance with Germany and the war on the eastern front.Defenders of Voronezh covered Moscow in the southern direction and defended the country's transportation network necessary.Defenders of the city did not allow Hitler to seize him at once, and drew off part of the group that was supposed to leave for Stalingrad.At the direction of Voronezh was destroyed 25 German divisions, more than 75 thousand soldiers and officers surrendered.During the occupation by the Nazis region and city mass massacres against the civilian population have led to the formation of the guerrilla movement.After the liberation of these forces joined the regular units of the Soviet army.Liberation Day Voronezh became for many millions of people is not only a holiday, but the beginning of a great creative work.Restoration of the city required the new feats of its inhabitants, but by 1945, life in the "Unconquered" was in full swing.