Gogol, Pushkin's contemporary, his works created in the historical conditions prevailing in our country after the unsuccessful performance of the Decembrists in 1825.Before the writers and public opinion have risen due to the new socio-political situation of the problem that found in the works of Nikolai deep reflection.Building on his work in the principles of critical realism, this writer was one of the most important representatives of this trend in Russian literature.According to Belinsky, Gogol was able to look for the first time directly and safely to the Russian reality.
In this article, we describe the image of officials in the poem "Dead Souls".
Nikolai The notes relating to the first volume of the novel, has the following comment: "The dead insensibility of life."That is, according to the author, the collective image of the officials in the poem "Dead Souls".Note the difference in the image and their landlords.Landowners in the product individualized, but officials, in contrast, are impersonal.You can create a collective portrait of them, stand out slightly from which the postmaster, chief of police, the prosecutor and the governor.
names of officials
should pay attention to the fact that all the persons constituting the collective image of the officials in the poem "Dead Souls", not listed the names, and the names are called often grotesque and comic contexts, sometimes duplicated (IvanAntonovich, Ivan A.).Of these, some come to the fore only a short time, and then disappear in a crowd of others.The subject of Gogol's satire was not the position and personality, and social vices, the social environment is the focus of the image in the poem.
It should be noted in the beginning of the grotesque image of Ivan Antonovich, his comic, rude nickname (pitchers Snout), while referring to the world of animals and non-living things.Ironically Department described as "the temple of Themis."This place is important for Gogol.Department often portrayed in the stories of St. Petersburg, in which he appears as an anti-world, a kind of hell in miniature.
important episode in the image of officials
by officials in the poem "Dead Souls" can be seen in the next episode.It is above all the governor's "home parties" described in the first chapter;then - a ball at the governor (eighth chapter), as well as breakfast at the chief of police (tenth).In general, the 7-10th chapters comes to the fore is the bureaucracy as a psychological and social phenomenon.
traditional motifs in the image of officials
can find many traditional motifs characteristic of the Russian satirical comedies in "bureaucratic" stories of Nikolai.These techniques and motifs date back to Griboyedov and Fonvizin.It also reminded the officials of the provincial city of his "colleagues" from the works of "Inspector".Characteristic for their abuse, arbitrariness, inactivity.Bribery, servility, bureaucracy - social evils traditionally ridiculed.Suffice it to recall described in "The Overcoat," the story with a "significant person", the fear of the auditor and the desire to bribe him in the same product and the bribe that is given to Ivan Antonovich in the 7th chapter of the poem "Dead Souls".Very characteristic are the images of the chief of police, "philanthropist" and "father" that dropped in the courtyard seating and benches, both in your pantry;Chairman of the Civil Chamber, which is not only free from bribes, but also the need to pay for the paperwork of his friends;Ivan Antonovich, who did not do anything without a "thank you".
compositional structure of the poem itself
poem is based on the adventures of an official (Chichikov), which is buying dead souls.This image individuality: Chichikov about the author almost says.
1st that works on a plan of Gogol shows the various negative aspects of life in Russia at the time - as the bureaucracy and the landlords.All provincial society is part of the "dead world".
exposition is given in the first chapter, which draws a portrait of a provincial town.Everywhere desolation, disorder, dirt, which emphasizes the indifference of local authorities to the needs of residents.Then, after a visit to Chichikov landlords in chapters 7 through 10 described a collective portrait of the then Russian officialdom.In several episodes are various images of officials in the poem "Dead Souls".By chapters can be traced, as the author characterizes this social class.
What unites officials with the landowners?
the landlords make related officials, shows Nikolai, lack of spirituality, greed, habit to a parasitic existence.Such, for example, Ivan Antonovich, drawn runaway strokes.He is ready for a bribe to sell his soul, assuming, of course, that it is with him.And it looks so, despite its comic nickname is not funny, it's frightening.
But the worst thing - is that these officials are no exception.These are typical representatives of the bureaucracy in Russia.In their midst, and the venality of the bureaucracy reigns.
With Chichikov returned to the city, we are transported to the Trial Chamber, which will draw the hero of this deed (the 7th chapter).Features images of officials in the poem "Dead Souls" is given in this episode, very detailed.Ironically uses Gogol highest symbol - a temple in which are "the priests of Themis," impartial and incorruptible.However, it affects primarily the desolation and dirt in the "temple."Explained "unattractive appearance" Themis that it takes visitors in a simple way, "in a bathrobe."
However, this simplicity actually turns blatant disregard for the law.Nobody is going to do things, and "priests of Themis" (officials) care only about how to take the tribute of visitors, ie bribes.And they really succeed in this.
running all around with papers, vanity, but it all serves only one purpose - to confuse the applicants, so that they could not do without the help graciously provided for a fee, of course.Chichikov, this rascal, and a connoisseur of backstage affairs, nevertheless had to use it to get into the presence.
He got access to the necessary person only once offered a bribe openly Ivan Antonovich.How she became institutionalized phenomenon in the life of Russian officialdom, we understand when the protagonist finally gets to the President of the Chamber, which takes him as his old friend.
conversation with the chairman
Heroes after polite phrases down to business, and here the chairman says that "do not have to pay" his buddies.Bribe here is so obligatory that only close friends of officials can do without it.
Another remarkable details of the life of city officials found out in a conversation with the chairman.Very interesting in this episode analysis by officials in the poem "Dead Souls".It turns out that even for such unusual activity that was described in the courts, not all representatives of this class consider it necessary to go into the service.As a "man celebrating" the prosecutor sitting at home.All cases for it solves the lawyer, who is referred to as "the first grabber."
Ball at the Governor
In Gogol described the scene at the governor's ball (Chapter 8) we see a parade of dead souls.Gossip and balls are for people miserable form of intellectual and social life.The image of the officials in the poem "Dead Souls", a brief description of which we make, can be supplemented in this episode the following items.At the level of discussion of fashionable styles and colors of the material, there are the officials notions of beauty and solidity is determined by how a person ties a tie and blowing his nose.There can not be here this culture, morality because the standards of conduct depend entirely on ideas about how it should be.That is why Chichikov initially adopted so welcome: it can be responsive to the needs of the public.
This is a brief image of bureaucrats in the poem "Dead Souls".Summary of the work itself, we did not describe.We hope you remember it.Detailed information provided by us, can be supplemented on the basis of the content of the poem.Very interesting topic "The image of the officials in the poem" Dead Souls "."Quotes from the works that can be found in the text, referring to these chapters we will help you to complement this feature.