Temperament: characteristics and examples phlegmatic, sanguine, choleric and melancholic

As you know, the temperament is innate personality traits.Some of its symptoms can be corrected, while others remain unchanged, therefore, the type of nervous system becomes the determining factor for the formation of the person.And the behavior of the people around us in everyday life, the heroes of films or literary characters is not so difficult to determine their temperament types.Examples of representatives of each of the four species of higher nervous activity will be given in this article.


Underlying sanguine temperament is agile, strong, balanced type NA.This means that the processes of excitation and inhibition in these individuals are in equilibrium.Also, they are characterized by the liveliness, flexibility, rapid speech with rich facial expressions and rapid movement.Sanguine adaptable to new conditions for them, they are energetic, hard work, the difficulties of life they do not cause depression, and the desire to resist them, to change the situation.Productive activity depends on its fascination: sanguine interesting work can take a long, happy and very successful.

In conversation it is easy and pleasant: rapidly converges with people, responsive, easily finds common ground with any interlocutor.The new situation does not lead him in confusion, but rather tones.Emotional sphere differs positive good mood.Feelings sanguine is not usually deep and strong, they can quickly arise as quickly replaced.This feature makes it easier to experience failure, which generally contributes to greater success in life.

On these grounds it can be assumed in certain personalities or characters sanguine.Examples in the literature: Steve Oblonsky ("Anna Karenina"), Sancho Panza ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha"), Olga Larina ("Eugene Onegin").In the history of this temperament possessed N. Bonaparte, Alexander Herzen, P. Beaumarchais.

choleric temperament

This is the most vivid temperament.Examples of illustration to find the easiest way, because people with this type of neural processes - a strong, unbalanced and mobile - are rarely remains in the shadows.Initiation he dominates the braking mental activity is very high.The behavior of different unbalance, the reaction - fast pace, the gestures - force and vigor, sometimes feverish.Vitality is at the choleric is called, splashing over the edge.He is prone to rapid experience any emotions, including anger, self-control as he clearly lacks.The paper reflects the kind of person a little and a lot of action, the case is given full capacity, but the energy at this rate for long enough.

This is the choleric temperament.Examples from history: the poet Pushkin AS, a naturalist MV Lomonosov, commander Suvorov AV, physiologist IP Pavlov

From literary characters: the old Prince Bolkonsky ("War and Peace"),Nozdryov ("Dead Souls"), Gregory Melekhov ("Quiet Flows the Don").

phlegmatic temperament

This type of temperament is based on a strong, balanced, inert type of nervous system.It has a low level of mental activity, all processes proceed slowly, quietly.Characterized by low activity and reactivity.But high resistance to stimuli, even stronger and longer - phlegmatic is not so easy to stray off course.

His feelings are constant, though not openly expressed, the mood often sedate.It is slow, silent, expressionless movement, rare and weak.Phlegmatic patient, able to steadfastly endure the blows of fate, does not show his feelings to others.In the stubborn, gets the job done, likes order, change their habits only in exceptional cases.

Phlegmatic in history: Kant (philosopher), Charles Darwin (naturalist), IA Krylov (fabulist), G. Galilei (physicist and philosopher), Kutuzov (commander).

Examples of literature: Ilya Oblomov ("Oblomov"), Sobakevich ("Dead Souls"), Pierre Bezukhov ("War and Peace").

melancholic temperament

It is based on a weak type of GNI, so the definition of the melancholic temperament is not particularly difficult.This is a very sensitive people react even to weak stimuli, while braking prevails over excitation.Low levels of mental activity and reactivity.Melancholy gives the impression of anxiety, fearful person, passive and braked, strong incentives often knock him off balance, they can even lead to behavioral problems.

It is quiet, but quite expressive facial expression, she seemed to compensate for the low voice.Movement slow, restrained, low-power.Melancholy gets tired quickly, he did not have great vitality, often remains in a depressed mood, rarely laughs.His feelings are deep and long-lasting, but experience little impact on the appearance and behavior.Circle of acquaintances is limited by such a person, since it is closed and uncommunicative.

can be described as a melancholy temperament.Examples in history: the writer Gogol NV, the poet VA Zhukovsky, the poet Nadson SY artist Levitan II

Among literary figures worth noting Princess Mary Bolkonsky ("War and Peace"), Podkolesin("Marriage"), Tatyana Larina ("Eugene Onegin").