Militia, who guarded Russian statehood

Background militias

liberation of Moscow from Polish invaders in the national memory of our compatriots have traditionally revered one of the most heroic episodes in Russian history.This event is put on a par with cunning Kutuzov's retreat from the capital in 1812, which led to the flight of Napoleon from Russia.And the defense of Moscow in 1941, a funeral plan blitzkrieg of Adolf Hitler.Today, this event is associated with a state-level holiday - National Unity Day, symbolizing the people's militia in the face of the occupier.

Time of Troubles

Home seventeenth century dawned ordeal for the Russian state.Epoch called history textbooks "Time of Troubles", was associated both with internal crises, comprehensive, and c increased external enemies.Livonian War the end of the sixteenth century generation responded to the severe economic crisis, a large-scale famine tightens serfdom, the growing tension in the society and, of course, reduced the military potential of the state.Against this background, the interrupt line of the ruling dynasty, the social and political turmoil, frequent displacement of the rulers on the throne of Muscovy made easy and tempting for foreigners.Substantial weight and influence in the region has gained a neighbor in the face of the Polish state, is experiencing perhaps the greatest heyday of its power in its history.In such circumstances, another Russian-Polish war, which began in 1609, quickly led to the fall of a number of important Russian fortresses (like Smolensk and Kaluga) and escape, and later the death of False Dmitry II, and in the end to the occupation of Moscow's forces of King Sigismund III.

Popular discontent

occupation lasted two years - from autumn 1610 to autumn 1612.During this period the events took place, known as the people's militia.When the regular army capitulated to the stronger opponent, the initiative had to take the people's forces.The first people's militia began to form at the beginning of 1611 on the initiative and under the control of a noble Procopius Lyapunov.Creating a counter appeal to the Poles and the popular forces occurred in the first place under the banner of protecting the Orthodox lands of the Catholic King.Bet on the idea of ​​Orthodoxy has caused a wide response among the people, and in this situation, an important creator of the militia became Patriarch Hermogenes, call for resistance.

Speech occurred in January 1611 when the troops fighting men and Cossacks from Ryazan, Novgorod and other cities moved to Moscow.The decisive battle took place in March, when the Moscow fire raged for two days, some Polish troops looted the treasury, preparing to retreat, however, due to differences in the camp of the rebels business people's militia had failed and was destroyed.Nevertheless, attempts to release the capital were left.And in the fall of 1611 in Nizhny Novgorod, began to form a new national militia.Heads of him this time became clerk elder Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky young nobleman again urged people to protect Orthodoxy.The second people's militia continued to actively shape during the subsequent 1612 absorbed the remnants of the defeated first People's Army, as well as incorporating new units townspeople and peasants of the central regions.In April 1612 the main rebel forces concentrated in Yaroslavl, which was created by a kind of the main military headquarters - the "Council of All the Earth".

expulsion of Poles

For the second half of August, the rebels managed to enter the besieged Moscow and the siege of the internal walls of the city, followed by the Poles disappeared.The main battle was defeated garrison Hetman Jan Chodkiewicz and taken by the Kremlin, after the surrender of which Moscow was finally liberated.
Thus, the role of the people's militia is difficult to overestimate in the savings of Russian statehood.