One of the most important places in the scientific perception of the modern world takes a so-called quantum theory.It is based on the position that the energy hidden in the electron, can be calculated, as its value can only take certain values.At the same time the most important consequence of this state of things is the conclusion that the state of the electron in a particular point in time can be described by a set of quantitative indicators - quantum numbers.

crucial importance in this theory is the principal quantum number.This term is used in modern physics called quantitative indicator, in accordance with which the present state of the electron belong to a certain energy level.The energy level, in turn, is a set of orbitals, the difference in value of the energy between them is extremely small.

It follows from this provision, the principal quantum number can be one of the positive integers.This is another crucial fact.Indeed, in the case of the transfer of an electron to a different energy level of the principal quantum number necessarily change its meaning.Here it is appropriate to draw a parallel with the Niels Bohr model, where there is a transition of an elementary particle from one orbit to another, resulting in the released or absorbed certain amount of energy.

principal quantum number is directly related to the orbital quantum number.The fact is that any energy level is heterogeneous in nature and includes several orbitals.Those that have the same energy value, form a separate sub-layer.To find out to what sublevel is one or another orbital, and apply the concept of "orbital quantum number."To calculate necessary by the principal quantum number subtract one.Then all the natural numbers from zero to this indicator and will form the orbital quantum number.

most important function of the quantitative characteristic is that it can help not only the electron correlation is happening with a particular sub-layer, and is characterized by the trajectory of a given elementary particle.Hence, by the way, and the letter of the orbitals that are already known from the school chemistry course: s, d, p, g, f.

Another important characteristic of the position of the electron is the magnetic quantum number.Its main physical meaning is to be described by the projection of the angular momentum with respect to the direction coinciding with the direction of the magnetic field.In other words, it is necessary to distinguish between the electrons that occupy the orbital quantum number is the same.

magnetic quantum number can vary 2l + 1, where l - is a quantitative characteristic of the orbital quantum number.Also, isolated and further magnetic spin number which is necessary in order to characterize the quantum properties of particles in pure form.Spin - it is nothing like the angular momentum, which can be compared with the rotation of the electron around its own imaginary axis.