Even in ancient times, people have learned to communicate with each other.Human genius has evolved, leading to the formation of language, writing, social consciousness.With its features people created the empire, culture and community.However, in the inexorable development of mankind has invented another important, but very scary attribute of his life - the war.This term represents the time when the individual to understand the facts of their own strength, which could bring him a certain social benefits.War is the easiest way to do something, it can bring a lot, but the price will be high fruit war: destruction, death, suffering.The concept of war and forms of its realization evolved in parallel with humanity.
It is worth comparing the military art of the ancient Romans and modern humans.Unfortunately, we see the difference in how people are killing each other in ancient times, and how they do it today.The war has evolved over the centuries, and in the XX century, a new type of this terrible phenomenon - total war.
What is all-out war?This question bothers many politicians for several decades.To answer this question, it is necessary to appeal to the historical statement of personality, became famous during the First World War.Erich Ludendorff - a man who in 1935 published the book "Total War."In it he expounded the essence of this problem.Simply put, this person is the founder of the term "total war."According to him, it means the military conflict, it does not matter what, the main thing that it used all the forces and means for the complete destruction of the enemy.It should be noted that the total war aimed at the complete defeat, rather than achieving any strategic objectives.It all comes down to the banal destruction of the opposing party, whether the whole state or a private entity.But there are other opinions, is the answer to the question of what is total war.
historical development of the concept
The military doctrine of the fascist German army principle of total war was laid in the middle of the XX century, but the very essence of the term was formed at the beginning of the century.The theorists of the time saw that the world is highly unstable, so the looming conflict will be the winner who will take a new, modern principles of war.Thus, the all-out war in the understanding of the early XX century scientists considered the system a combination of two main stages: external and internal.Detailed studies of these structural elements will help you understand what is total war.
There are two main phases of total war:
- internal phase is characterized by the full mobilization of the entire male population of the belligerent because total war - a war of nations, so to win it is necessary to fight all those who cando it.Also, the internal phase includes a constant propaganda among the population, psychological work, that people's minds were directed to the hatred of the other side of the conflict.
- External stage - it's not just fighting, as is commonly believed.To achieve the complete destruction of the enemy's population can be different ways.In total war particularly stridently used terror and genocide of the civilian population on a par with the classic military action.
Goebbels: sportpalast speech
Fundamental Principles of total war were included in the work of the German fascist army only in 1943, when the Nazis began to suffer fatal defeat in Russia.German prototype of the phenomenon suggested in his extremely radical statements chief propagandist Germany Gebbels.Totalnaya war in the vision of this man had some differences from the classical variant.Two basic principles have been incorporated in full, but the essence was a bit distorted.Goebbels used the concept of total war in the political context of the fight against Bolshevism in the East, namely in the Soviet Union.Therefore, since the concept of Goebbels acquired not only a military but also a political meaning that characterized the war with the representatives of different social systems.
Total War in Roman times
Deposits basic principles of total war were laid long ago, in the days of ancient Rome.Tribute should be paid generals of that time, as they are at the time of the conquest of new peoples have used the same tactics that worked flawlessly.When the Roman legions on the way encountered a village or city, that all people offer to give up and swear allegiance to Rome.If people did not accept the proposal, the village is completely destroyed, and people became slaves.
Likewise, Julius Caesar conquered Gaul.He knew that such a warlike people can win, only breaking his spirit.Therefore, Rome Total War for which it has been the basic principle of warfare, made a great contribution to the development of this concept.
In this article we have tried to answer the question "what is total war?" The term can be considered from the point of view of military and political principle, as well as give him a purely subjective assessment.