mutation always occurs suddenly.The genetic material of the organism changes that something is going on inside the chromosomes or genes, and these changes are usually visible to the naked eye.In some cases, the consequences are heavy, and sometimes the body may lead to death.The mutation does not occur by itself.The reason always gets mutagenic factor.
What mutagenic factors?
Changes in genes and chromosomes, science is studying genetics.It also gives a scientific definition of mutagens.
mutagenic factors - a chemical or physical agents that cause changes in the genetic material of cells.The nature of these agents can be different, and in this position based classification.
Types of mutagens
Depending on their origin allocate physical, chemical and biological mutagens.Any mutagenic factors can be attributed to one of these three major groups.
cell exposure to hostile agents may be sent directly to a DNA molecule, and then the genetic material loses its initial structure.Some mutagens interfe
to mutagens physical origin include sources of ionizing radiation, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, an abnormally high or low temperatures and humidity.
For example, the wavelength of ultraviolet radiation having a length of more than 260 nm are absorbed by the cell leaves of plants and cause the formation therein uncharacteristic pyrimidine dimers (the compounds in the DNA chain) which, in turn, become a cause of errors in reading the genetic material.As a result, new cells are derived from DNA molecules "wrong" structure.
Many chemicals are mutagens and promutagens.Examples are the active forms of oxygen, nitrates and nitrites, certain metals, drugs and substances that until humanity did not exist in nature (household chemicals, food additives and preservatives).
For example, a pregnant woman may not be aware of their situation and to take certain antibiotics, dangerous to the fetus.As a result, the child may develop congenital disease caused by mutations.
to biological mutagens include viruses, bacteria, waste products of some protozoa and parasites.
result of the impact of such biological agents on a cell process called infectious mutagenesis.For example, the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, who lives in the human stomach and intestine can cause inflammation of the mucosa.Inflammation alter the normal course of redox processes in injured cells, and changes the structure of genetic material in them.Interfere with the process of DNA repair and the course of the normal division of the molecule.Result - mutation.
few words about the process of mutagenesis
Mutagenesis - is the process of mutations.What sort of mechanism, it can happen?
The strongest mutagenic factors cause the so-called chromosomal instability.As a result of the genetic material, or is distributed unevenly in the section cells, or change the structure of chromosomes.For example, two chromosomes under the influence of aggressive agents exchange their plots.
mutagenic factors can also alter the nucleic acid sequence of DNA.Interestingly, these mutations are lethal or cause very serious diseases that affected important nucleotides, but they can also occur without pathologies, if such nucleic acid sequences are not damaged.
How to protect yourself from exposure to mutagens?
mutagenic agents are not ubiquitous, so to take certain preventive measures will still be useful.
Antioxidants - an important group of compounds that prevent the effects of carcinogens.They can help and protect themselves from all sorts of hostile chemical agents.Examples of antioxidants are vitamins A, B and E, beta-carotene and flavonoids.These substances contain a very large amount in vegetables and fruits, as well as in green tea.
important to try to protect themselves from adverse physical agents such as UV radiation or cigarette smoke.For example, in Australia, is home to a very large number of fair-skinned people, and there's often sunny weather.The percentage of cases of melanoma in this country, unfortunately, is high.
Precautions need to take antibiotics, attentive to the food and try to minimize the consumption of preservatives.Ideally, of course, it would be to adhere to the principles of a healthy diet.
mutagenic environmental factors are strong.However, to protect themselves from exposure to them is quite possible, if attentive to their health.