What man needs a backbone?Just think how important it is for the body.After all, in fact, is a kind of support of the body, consisting of 32 or 34 vertebrae.All of them are connected to each other by means of joints, ligaments, intervertebral discs.The latter is the so-called cartilage.It is important to know the structure of the spine is to have problems with it in a timely manner to eliminate them.
Human spine: anatomy and structure
This part of the human body is quite simple in structure because only a couple of departments, each of which, in turn, includes a certain number of vertebrae (usually referred to them from the top):
- cervical: It consists of 7 vertebrae.It is important to note that the bone, which is located at the rear of the skull does not believe and call it zero vertebra;
- thoracic: consists of 12 vertebrae;
- lumbar: consists of 5 vertebrae;
- sacral: consists of 5 vertebrae that have fused an adult in the aitch bone;
- coccygeal department: consists of 3-5 vertebrae are fused into one coccygeal bone.
Many of us have repeatedly met in the medical literature of the human spine.Picture it clearly demonstrates that the vertebrae are connected to each other discs, articular processes, ligaments (the way they are placed in front, behind and on both sides of the vertebral body).This diverse mix of vertebrae and allows the mobility of a person, he was so generously endowed by nature.All is left to chance: ligament - a certain constraints that can hold the body and the muscles located around the spine, provide him the maximum movement.If the load on them is great, there is a pain in the back and a general malaise.
What does the spine?
First we need to understand that every spine performs certain tasks related to the normalization of a particular area of your body.Thus, the functions of the human spine, cloven 5 departments:
- most important role in this case is the thoracic, it was he, along with ribs and sternum as a whole forms the chest.I would like to clarify that the ribs - they are separate bones that are attached to the spine as if being its continuation.The chest protects organs and provides them with stillness.But due to the fact that between the ribs and spine are the joints, we can freely breathe in and out.
- important that between the vertebrae of the lumbar, thoracic and cervical are special pads in the form of discs.For example, because there are cervical intervertebral discs, a person is able to tilt the head to both sides.
Now, it is worth noting the function of the spine as a whole:
- it serves as a shock absorber when certain dips, bumps, shocks;
- in the spine is the spinal cord, it is thanks to him that the body is a single entity (it connects the brain and the rest of the body);
- due to the fact that the human spine connects the body, the skeleton becomes rigidity, and the head is easily held in a vertical position;
- promotes human mobility, which is essential for the life of him;
- is to keep the spine all the major muscles and thighs.
What function is performed by cartilage discs between the vertebrae?
For a start it would be nice to understand what is the intervertebral disc.In simple words, it is a certain layer between two adjacent vertebrae.
form rounded, similar to the tablet.The structure of the cartilage of the intervertebral disc is very difficult.
Center takes the nucleus pulposus, which is the cushioning element at each movement of the spine.This is because the structure has a very elastic.
Note that the vertebrae despite mobility relative to one another does not move.All thanks to the fact that around the nucleus in the intervertebral disc annulus located.Its structure is difficult due to the large number of different layers.This ring contains a plurality of fibers.All of this is connected to and overlaps in three directions.Strong and durable.But due to the fact that intervertebral discs tend to fade over time, the fibers may gradually turn into scars.A disease called osteochondrosis.By the way, it often causes severe pain.As a result, the fibrous ring can break and then surgery is unlikely to be avoided.
interesting fact is that in adult intervertebral disc no vessels are not tested.Some may object and ask how did he eats.This process occurs due to the penetration of oxygen and nutrients from the vertebrae that are adjacent to (ie, of the vessels which permeate them).Therefore, medications that are often strive to treat diseases associated with damage to the intervertebral discs, are simply useless.Here it is better to resort to laser plastic, then the effect will be one hundred percent.
Based on the above features of the anatomy of the intervertebral disc, it can be concluded about what function is performed by cartilage discs between the vertebrae.First, protect the spine from injury during excessive physical activity, a fall, shock, etc.Secondly, it is through them our body flexible and is capable of moving in different directions.It is important to know the thickness of the intervertebral disc may be different.Everything depends on the spine, where they are:
- cervical: 5-6 mm;
- thoracic: the finest wheels - 3-4 mm;
- lumbar: 10-12 mm.
Since the cervical and lumbar spine has physiological curvature forward, we must understand that there are intervertebral discs will be slightly thicker.
If you look at the picture of the spine, you can easily see that the diameter of the intervertebral discs more than 2-3 mm, than the vertebrae themselves.I wonder, did you know that the length of the human spine during the day varies.In the morning it is 1 cm longer than the night.The reason is that the day under the influence of gravitational forces the distance between the discs is reduced, per night, everything comes back to normal.By the way, why the structure of the intervertebral discs change with age?This happens due to the fact that the worsening of their absorbency, they wear out, the spine becomes prone to injury.To avoid this, it is necessary for all life as much as possible to play sports, spend time in the fresh air and eat right.Through such simple rules of intervertebral discs are well saturated with oxygen.Then old age or of any herniated speech will not.
bend in the spine - is it ok?
Yes, the doctor said unequivocally positive.
With them formed a springy effect, promotes walking, running, jumping and other physical exercises.After all, the basic functions of the human spine are reduced to create maximum mobility of the body.Just imagine if there was a direct human spine.Picture it clearly demonstrates the opposite, you can see clearly that the vertebrae to form something like a wave:
- lordosis neck - the backbone in this place several arched forward;
- kyphosis in the chest - the spine is bent backward;
- lordosis in the lumbar region: back to the spine bends forward;
- kyphosis in the area of the sacrum: you can see the small bending backwards.
It is absolutely natural appearance of the spine and its curves are considered physiological features.
facet joint: anatomy.Foraminotomy
It is those processes that extend from the vertebrae, called joints.Anatomy of them simple.In addition to the vertebrae together connect cartilaginous intervertebral discs, the same role played by the facet joints.These processes (some look like arc) directed inwards, as it were, looking at each other.Their end is articular cartilage.His power and lubrication is carried out by liquid available inside the joint capsule.That it ends processes joints.The main function of the facet joints is to ensure a certain mobility of the human body.
intervertebral (foraminal) holes specifically designed to pass through them vein and nerve roots.Their arrangement is interesting: on both sides of each vertebra.They are formed with the help of the articular processes, legs and bodies of two adjacent vertebrae.
How does the spine with age?
Anatomy and physiology characteristic of the spine.Although it would seem, the spine is a hard pole, which is the basis of our whole body.
course, the structure of cartilage tissue allows us to perform a variety of movements, but nevertheless pozvonichnik - a strong foundation, and it is strange that it affects the time.Just want to note that this is a perfectly normal physiological feature of the human body.Throughout the life of the human spine is not only increasing in length and gaining some weight, but is undergoing significant changes:
- during the first months of the life of any child is in a horizontal position, his spine straight.Then there is a transition to a vertical position, because of which the spine becomes his characteristic physiological bends in their departments (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral);
- over time the whole cartilage turns into bone.They say that the way the spine becomes stronger;
structure of the intervertebral disc is also subject to significant changes.
Anatomy and physiology of the human spine is characterized by two main indicators:
- human growth and the ratio of the proportions of the body over a lifetime.There are certain averages, which are considered the norm and allow to determine whether the developing spine.For the first 20 years of the life of a human spine grows most rapidly, which can cause a variety of abnormalities and diseases.That is why the child in the first years of life is necessary to show specialists for the prevention of various diseases.
- growth segment of the spine in an average year.This indicator is calculated by a special formula also makes it possible to evaluate the development of the spine.
In the spinal column has a certain functional unit, which is a vertebral-motor segment.In fact, a combination of two adjacent vertebrae with ligaments, disks, joints and all the rest.Thus, we once again indicates what function is performed by cartilage discs between the vertebrae.They are a special attachment that allows a person to perform various movements.Also, the mobility of the spine created by the facet joints.Through the holes that are on the side of the spine, stretch the nerves and blood vessels.Vertebral-motor segment - a set of interrelated elements.Violation of one of them entails a lot of consequences.It can manifest itself in two ways:
- segmental blockade: the adjacent vertebrae do not move, and the activity of the human body at the expense of other segments.This is often a pain;
- segmental instability: the opposite situation, when the motion between adjacent vertebrae redundant.This not only causes pain, but the problem can hide much deeper: affects the nerve endings.
Remember that any pain in the spine may occur either in one particular place, or everywhere at once.The lesion in any case can only be determined with the help of special studies and competent expert advice.
The nerves and spinal cord
Connection vertebrae within the spine and going through the spinal cord, the basics of human central nervous system.Due to it (using the input signals from the brain) regulates the operation of the whole organism.Spinal cord - a large yarn consisting of a large number of nerve fibers and endings.It is located in the so-called "dural sac", which is well protected from external influences by three different shells (soft as a cobweb, solid).
around him constantly present cerebrospinal fluid.Each spine, and accordingly, all of the muscles, tissues, organs and systems situated around are regulated by a specific area of the spinal cord.
muscles located around the spine and their functions
It has become clear that the main function of the spine are to ensure human movement.This is done because of the muscles that are attached to the vertebrae.When we speak of back pain, it is often not even suspect that the problem is not in the spine and discs.In fact, it may be determined to pull a muscle.But complications in the spine can cause involuntary contraction of adjacent muscles, ie,in fact, the reverse situation.When there is a spasm in the muscle fibers produced by lactic acid (which oxidizes glucose), caused by a lack of oxygen to the blood.This pain is much familiar to pregnant women.They feel it in labor during labor due to improper breathing.But it is necessary just to relax and discomfort disappear, as the spasm fades.
original nature all conceived quite differently.After all, nobody would believe that today's women and men turn into fixed beings who are in the same (and totally uncomfortable for them) pose during the day.Spine numb, experiencing this incredible burden.But everyone knows a simple truth: the movement - this is life, and hard to argue with that.Of course, there are still a lot of problems in the system that are caused by bad ecology, wrong and unbalanced diet, wearing uncomfortable clothes and shoes, etc.Correct the situation is simple enough, you should perform a few simple tips:
- regularly active lifestyle.Physical culture and sports - the main helpers;
- create comfort around you: comfortable furniture, clothing and shoes to help you relax during the workday;
- preventive visit, for example, a podiatrist, which is capable of visual inspection to identify the problems with the spine.Especially, it concerns young children.
more back pain may be due to the fact that the intervertebral discs worn.Modern doctors like to talk about it for almost everyone.But in reality, this rarely happens.Degeneration of intervertebral discs can be caused by various reasons, including excessive physical activity and aging tissues.Treatment usually consists of surgery.
What function is performed by cartilage discs between the vertebrae, we clearly understand.They provide a tribute to human movement and prevent possible damage to the spine.Do not think that the sudden pain in the spine itself must pass.It can calm down for a while, but this is only the first sign of a big problem.
Do not be lazy in a timely manner to contact an experienced and competent professionals who will help you to prevent the development of serious diseases of the spine.It's the foundation of all of our body!From it depends directly on the health of the whole organism and that carefree old age, of which all that dreaming.Watch out for yourself and be healthy!