Management - is a professional activity aimed at achieving the set goals through the optimum use of human and material resources on the basis of the principles, methods and functions of the economic mechanism of management theory.
In essence, this term is synonymous with the word "management".However, "management" is a narrower concept and applies only to the management of different social and economic processes across the enterprise or organization.This concept includes:
- marketing and forecasting market conditions;
- manufacture of goods with minimal cost and maximum profit from their sale;
- analysis of the information and drawing up a plan to achieve the intended purpose;
- personnel management, which implies a knowledge of the basics of psychology and sociology.
main skill of a born manager is the ability to successfully meet the challenges.In a small company as a manager usually performs the director.But if the firm reaches a medium to large size, it would have the support of the manager (manager, organizer, director).And often it happens that it is thanks to their professional skills Manager solves many problems even better than the director.
Management theory - the science of methods and principles of such management.For a better understanding of that discipline is useful to consider its historical development.The evolution of management theory began more than a hundred years ago.There are 5 basic schools formed management thought:
• The school focuses on the scientific methods of management (since 1885. Of 1920).
• Classical School (1920 - 1950 gg.).
• School, studied the effect of human relations (with 1930. Of 1950).
• Behavioral School, also known as the School of Behavioral Sciences (since 1950. Until today).
• School of Mathematical and quantitative approach (from 1950. To the present).
The basis of the school of scientific management based on the principles and ideas of Frederick Taylor.This theory of management pays great attention to the scientific study of each type of work, specialization of labor and the introduction of a differential system of payment.Taylor thought that by using observation, measurement, logic, you can significantly improve the operation of manual labor.Other well-known representatives of this trend are Henry Gantt, wife Lillian and Frank Gilbreth.
founder of classical school became Henri Fayol.Its representatives for the first time separated from the management of production, highlighting it as a separate activity.This theory of management is focusing on perfecting and developing the principles of management of the enterprise as a whole.A. Fayolle developed 14 universal principles of management, and Weber formulated the foundations of the bureaucratic approach to management.
doctrine of "human relations" become the cornerstone of the next Management School - the school that the organization considered as a specific "social system."The founders of this school (Elton Mayo, Abraham Maslow, Fritz Roethlisberger) noted that labor productivity is influenced by human needs.According to them, the manager should strive for informal leadership and win "the favor of the people."
Unlike the supporters of the school of human relations, which have focused on the needs of the individual, the behaviorist school representatives (F. Herzberg, C. Argyris, D. McGregor, R. Laynkert) consider and study the behavior of people ina group of both formal and informal.In these two schools developed a theory of motivation in management.
The mathematical school management is a specific logical process that can be described by an appropriate mathematical model.Therefore, attention is focused on the economic and mathematical methods, using statistics and computerization of management of the organization.Among the founders of this school most known Smoi G., D. Woodward, D. March, Mr. Ackoff, H. Lowry, D. Thompson.
relationship above schools results in a highly efficient management.Each area like strands of rope management, which intertwined, creating the highest strength.Modern management theory has absorbed and continues to deepen and develop the best achievements and ideas of each school.