man since ancient times used in everyday life wild and cultivated herbs, whose names are known to all - dandelion, burdock, nettle, celandine, clover, rosemary, sage, Adonis, and several hundreds of thousands of species.They are grown for human consumption, the preparation of medicines for animal feed, for use in industry.
In the world there are groups of plants:
- Trees - they have a high trunk covered with bark from the trunk of moving away numerous branches.
- Shrubs - instead of the main trunk have formed several thin woody Stalks.
- Herbs - do not have a trunk, but have soft stems that die annually.They are annual, biennial and perennial.
wild and cultivated herbs
plants that grow without the help of a man called wild.They are distributed where they exist for suitable climatic conditions.Herbaceous plants that are planted or sown person is looked after (watered, treated, nourished) - a cultural grass.Examples of cultivation known since ancient times.In the course of selection work, scientists have significantly improved the quality of cultural grasses increasing their frost and drought tolerance, yield, resistance to disease.
The same plant can be both wild and cultured.For example, if the natural meadows grass grows clover, it is wild.If a man sows clover in pastures and caring for him, he becomes crops.
Cucumber - it is the grass?
The farm is very widely used herb culture.Their names are varied - lettuce, sorrel, timothy grass, lemon balm, cumin, dill, parsley, mustard, horseradish, motherwort, ginseng, and others.This remarkable examples.But did you know that potatoes, cucumber and tomato - in fact, the same culture of grass?Their names are familiar to us, but we perceive them as vegetables.In fact, vegetables are called in common parlance the fruits of these plants, while their life form is called in botany grass.By analogy, banana, pineapple and Jerusalem artichoke - also herbaceous plants, here you can include wheat, rye, peas, beans and other crops that do not have a tree trunk or woody stems.
From a scientific point of view of the grass are divided into:
- Annuals - they die completely after a growing season and fruiting (eg, dill, peas).Reactivate them only via seeds.
- Biennial - the plants, full life cycle lasts 24 months and includes two growing seasons.This, for example, cabbage, carrots, Daisy.
- Perennial - plant, the life cycle of more than two years.St. John's wort, burdock, banana - a classic example of perennial grasses.
Other options classification
by industry sector:
- cereals, forage grasses (husbandry);
- herbaceous plants, the fruits of which are vegetables (horticulture);
- flowers (flower).
By economic purpose:
- Food herbs - dill, parsley, cumin, mustard, aubergine and hundreds of others.
- Forage plants - alfalfa, sainfoin, timothy, and others.
- Spinning grass - flax, hemp and others.
- honey plants - buckwheat, clover, etc. zmeegolovnika.
- cultural Medicinal plants - herbs used in herbal medicine.This chamomile, motherwort, valerian, ginseng, mint, sweet flag, St John's wort, a series plantain, oregano.They are sown in the fields for the collection of useful raw materials: leaves, flowers, roots.
- Dyeing plants - calendula, which also applies to the medicinal plants.
- Technical grass - rape.
Rare species classification
Cultivated plants (herbs included) is sometimes classified according to their chemical composition, taking into account the prevalence of any substance:
Each plant has several names.Popularly known as grasses (options can vary greatly among themselves) aptly represent their special properties.In the scientific world, these plants are called the Latin words.
|Familiar name||name in Latin||popular name|
|Valeriana officinalis||Valeriana officinalis L.||Cat root forest incense|
|Hypericum||Hypericum perforatumL.||Ivanovo grass healthy grass, tears Bogoroditsiny|
|Lily||Convallaria majalis L.||Molodilnik, bunny ears, the language of the forest, cross|
|Taraxacum||Taraxacum officinale Wigg||Tooth grass,Dandelion, chicory Russian, nipplewort Jewish hat|
|camomile||Matricaria chamomilla L.||mother liquor, rumyanka|
|Celandine||Chelidonium majus L.||Larkspur, liverwort, bright grass|
Cultural grass Russia
Names herbaceous plants that grow in the vast expanses of our country are extremely numerous.Cultures were grown on agricultural fields, fertile land that collects rich harvests.The home team is seeded and planted in their backyards are many herbs.
most common cultural herbaceous plant Russia is wheat.Among other cereals grown throughout the country, can be called rye, oats, barley, corn, soybeans and millet.
Popular legumes - peas, beans, lentils.
Potatoes - the only kind krahmalonosnyh herbaceous plants, which has been successfully grown in Russia.Also, we have cultivated a unique sugar crops - sugar beets.
from oil species are common sunflower, canola, flax, mustard.
In the fields and grow in any garden vegetable plants - cucumbers, zucchini, squash, eggplant, tomatoes, fennel, radishes, beets, onions, carrots and cabbage.All of the above - it is also the cultural herb Russia.Their names are included in the botanical reference as herbaceous plants.Although it sounds strange, you see!
Medicinal herbs cultural
names of medicinal plants, which civilize in Russia are extremely numerous.In total there are several millions of hectares set aside for planting medicinal herbs.More often sow mint, chamomile, valerian, plantain, burdock, nettle, celandine.Less grow lavender, St. John's wort, celery, ginger, motherwort, sage, tarragon, oregano, basil.
Recently acreage herbs shrinking rapidly.The main reason - is economically inexpedient.Herbaceous plants demanding to care, treatment of crops is mainly carried out by hand, raw material prices are low.In addition, many herbs in the years to infest crops other crops as weeds, again and again, growing between rows.
Given the high value of such plants in the Soviet era, they must include in the rotation.Today, however, a farmer sowing wheat and sunflowers - those crops that provide the maximum profit.And who wants to plant sage?Perhaps this is a rhetorical question.