River Northern Dvina River - a major waterway of the Russian North.Where it originates, which flows in a sea of empties?The answers to all these questions, you will find this information in the article.
General characteristics of the Northern Dvina River
With a length of 744 kilometers, the river collects its waters from a vast area, which is 357,000 square kilometers.Administratively, it is Arkhangelsk and Vologda region of Russia.And if you take into account the river and Sukhona Vychegda, the length of this waterway will reach 1,800 km!
River Northern Dvina takes on its way many other rivers, streams and waterways.Hydrography counted only about one hundred second-order tributaries of the river system.That is, these are the streams that flow directly into the Northern Dvina.Among them, the largest tributaries are: Vaga, Vychegda, Pinega and Yumizh.
On the banks of the Northern Dvina are seven Russian cities.It (the direction from the source to the mouth): Great Ustyug, Krasavino, Kotlas, Solvychegodsk, Novodvinsk, Arkhangelsk and Severodvinsk.
Features water regime
River Northern Dvina has a traditional northern river water regime.Food - mostly melted snow, the maximum flow rate observed in May and June (up to 15 000 m3 / s).
River begins to be covered with ice at the end of October, and opened around mid-April.Thus, the Northern Dvina "in ice" remains almost half a year.It should be noted that the period of ice drift on the river passes are usually very active.Quite often there are traffic jams.
etymology of the place name
Why Northern Dvina called so?On this point the researchers and historians have several interpretations, but they all boil down to about the same.This gidrotoponim it stands for "dual stream".This interpretation leads in their books, several authors.The fact that the river Northern Dvina River is formed by the merger of two other waterways, so a similar etymology is quite logical and reasonable.
It should be noted that some researchers (in particular Matveev) seen in the origin of the name Baltic roots.So, Matveyev believes that the place name comes from the Lithuanian word "dvynai", which means "double."
Interestingly, the Northern Dvina displayed in many literary works and poetry.So, for example, the fictional town in one of the novels of Kir Bulychev located on an imaginary river Goose, which carries its waters it is in the Northern Dvina.
long way to the sea ...
Where is the Northern Dvina River?Answer is simple, if you look at a detailed map.It clearly shows that the source of the Northern Dvina River is located where the South and merge together Sukhona.This happens in the ancient Russian city of Veliky Ustyug, founded in the XII century.
Next Northern Dvina River carries its waters due north, and soon receives a river Vychegda.This occurs near the town of Kotlas.It is worth noting the curious fact: at the time of the merger Vychegda is more full-flowing river, than the Northern Dvina.
Then our artery continues its way to the sea, gradually changing the northwest direction in the north.After quite a long distance, the Northern Dvina River receives the waters of another major river - Pinega.Downstream it is already beginning to take shape in its huge area of our river delta.
curious and the historical fact that the source of the Northern Dvina River is described in detail in the so-called Ustyug chronicle.It says that "the river Sukhona and South, which have merged, made himself a third of the river ...".
mouth of the Northern Dvina River
hydrology mouth called the place where the river flows into the ocean, sea, lake or other body of water.In this case, the Northern Dvina River flows into the White Sea, to be exact, in the Dvina Bay.This looks like the mouth of a huge delta, the area of which can be compared with the area of the city of Volgograd.It is approximately 900 square kilometers.
Northern Dvina River Delta is a system of small duct hoses, straits and islands.The width of the river valley is increased to 18 kilometers.
Dvina Bay - a large bay of the White Sea, in the south-eastern part.Depths - within 120 meters (average values - about twenty meters).In Dvina Bay runs more than a dozen rivers, including the Northern Dvina.It is worth noting that this is - the warmest place in all of the North Sea.Water in the Dvina Bay in the summer warms up to +10 ... +12 degrees.
Shipping on the Northern Dvina
Shipping possible along the entire length of the river.However, it is extremely difficult in the area of the city of Arkhangelsk.For example, large ships can not go deep into the mouth.As a rule, they are serviced in the port of savings.Remarkably, the plans for the optimization of navigation in the delta of the Northern Dvina developed in the XIX century, but they have not been properly implemented.The situation is complicated by the mouth of that river during the "high water" here makes a huge amount of sand and debris that only complicates the passage of ships.
It is also worth mentioning that the river still runs the steamer "Gogol" - the oldest of those still in operation in the country.It was built back in 1911.
So you know about the features and location of an important waterway of the Russian North - the Northern Dvina River.