submarine fleet became part of the Navy in different countries already during the First World War.Survey work in the field of submarine began long before its start, but only after 1914 were finalized requirements to the management of fleets of tactical and technical characteristics of submarines.The main condition under which they could operate, was to stealth.Submarines of World War II in its design and function differed little from their predecessors of the previous decades.Structural differences are usually composed in technological innovations and some invented in the 20s and 30s of units and aggregates, improving navigability characteristics and vitality.
German U-boat before the war
terms of the Versailles Treaty did not allow Germany to build many types of ships and create a full-fledged navy.In the prewar period, ignoring imposed in 1918 Entente constraints, the German shipyard nevertheless launched on half a dozen ocean-class submarines (U-25, U-26, U-37, U-64, and others.).Their displacement on the surface is about 700 tons.Smaller submarines (500 tons) in the amount of 24 pieces.(numbered from the U-44), plus 32 units coaster-coastal range had the same displacement and auxiliary forces were Kriegsmarine.All of them were armed with guns and bow torpedo tubes (usually 4 bow and stern 2).
So, despite the many restrictive measures, by 1939, armed with the German Navy consisted quite modern submarines.World War II immediately after the start showed the high efficiency of this class of weapons.
Attempts on Britain
Britain took the first blow of Hitler's war machine.Ironically, the Empire admirals most appreciated the danger posed by the German battleships and cruisers.The experience of previous large-scale conflict, they assumed that the coverage will be limited to submarines relatively narrow coastal strip, and their discovery will not be a big problem.
turned out, however, that the German submarines of World War II could become a much more dangerous weapon than the surface fleet.Attempts to establish a naval blockade of the northern coast failed.On the first day of the war ship "Athenia" was torpedoed and sunk on September 17 aircraft carrier "Koreydzhes" British planes which hoped to use as an effective anti-submarine vehicle.Block action "wolf packs" Admiral Lucifer did not succeed, they acted more boldly.October 14, 1939 the submarine U-47 went into the waters of the Royal Navy base at Scapa Flow and the provisions of the freeboard torpedoed anchored battleship "Royal Oak".Court died every day.
Lucifer sword and shield Britain
By 1940, the Germans were allowed to go to the bottom of the English ships with a total tonnage of over two million tonnes.It seemed inevitable disaster in Britain.The interest for historians chronicles telling about the role played submarines of World War II.The film "The Battle of the Atlantic" tells the story of the struggle for control of the fleet ocean highways, which went on supplying warring countries.Fight "wolves" Lucifer was difficult, but every challenging task fraught decision, it was found this time.Advances in the field of radar allowed to detect not only visually but also under conditions of zero visibility, the distance, German submarines.
World War II has not yet reached its peak phase was in April 1941, but was sunk submarine U-110.She was the last survivor of those with whom Hitler had started the fighting.
From the very onset of submarine designers have considered various options for energy power plant.Submarines of World War II, driven by an electric motor, and on the surface - a diesel engine.The main problem hindering the preservation of secrecy, was the need to surface periodically to recharge batteries.It was during the forced unmasking submarines are vulnerable, they could detect aircraft and radars.In order to reduce this risk have been invented so-called snorkel.It is a system of sliding pipe which enters into the diesel compartment air required for combustion, and exhaust gases are removed.
Application snorkel contributed to the reduction of losses of submarines, although in addition to radars were other means of detection, such as sonar.
Innovation was ignored
Despite the obvious advantages, equipped with snorkel only German U-boats of World War II.The Soviet Union and other countries have left it unattended invention, although the conditions for borrowing experience were.It is believed that the first Dutch ship builders used the snorkel, but we know also that in 1925, similar devices designed by the Italian military engineer Ferretti, but then this idea was abandoned.In 1940, the Netherlands was invaded by Nazi Germany, but its submarine fleet (4 units) had to leave the UK.There, too, I did not appreciate this, of course, the desired device.Snorkel dismantled, finding them very dangerous and doubtful useful tool.
other revolutionary technical solutions builders of submarines is not used.Improved batteries, charging devices for them, improved air regeneration system, but the principle of the submarines remained unchanged.
Submarines of World War II, the Soviet Union
Photo heroes severomortsev Lunin Marinesko, Starikov print not only Soviet newspapers but also foreign.Submariners were the real heroes.In addition, the most successful commanders of Soviet submarines became personal enemies of Adolf Hitler, and a better recognition of it is not required.
huge role in the naval battle that raged in the northern seas and the Black Sea basin, played the Soviet submarines.World War II began in 1939, and in 1941 Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union.At that time, armed with our submarine fleet consisted of several basic types:
- submarine "Decembrists". series (except for the title two more units - "Narodovolets and" Red Guard ") founded in 1931.Full displacement - 980 tons.
- Series "L" - "Leninist". Project 1936, displacement - 1,400 tons, the ship is armed with six TA ammo to 12 torpedoes and 20 sea mines, two weapons (bow - 100 mm and coarse - 45 mm).
- Series "L-XIII» a displacement of 1,200 tons.
- series "u" ("Pike») a displacement of 580 tons.
- Series "C» , 780 tons, armed with six guns and two TA - 100 mm and 45 mm.
- series "K» .Displacement - 2200 t. Designed in 1938 submarine, reach speeds of 22 knots (buoyancy) and 10 knots (an underwater position).Boat ocean class.Armed with six torpedo tubes (6 TA bow and stern 4).
- Series "M" - "Baby".Displacement - from 200 to 250 m (depending on version).Projects in 1932 and 1936, TA 2, autonomy - 2 weeks.
Submarines Series "M" represent the most compact submarines of World War II the Soviet Union.The film "The Soviet Navy.Chronicle of Victory "tells the story of the glorious path of many crews skillfully use the unique handling characteristics of these ships, coupled with their small size.Sometimes commanders managed to get close quietly in a well-protected enemy base and get away from persecution."Baby" can be transported by rail and float in the Black Sea and the Far East.
Along with the advantages of the series "M" was, of course, disadvantages, but without them there is no machinery is complete: a brief autonomy, only two torpedoes in the absence of a stock, cramped and tedious conditions of service associated with a few of the crew.These difficulties have not prevented the heroic submariners gain an impressive victory over the enemy.
in different countries
interesting number in which submarines of World War II were in service with the navies of various countries before the war.As of 1939 the largest fleet of submarines had the USSR (over 200 pcs.), Followed by the powerful Italian submarine fleet (more than a hundred units), the third place was occupied by France (86 pcs.), The fourth - UK (69), the fifth -Japan (65) and sixth - Germany (57).During the war, the balance of power has changed, and the list is almost lined up in reverse order (except for the number of Soviet submarines).In addition Launched on our shipyards in the ranks of the Soviet Navy and the submarine was built in England, which became part of the Baltic fleet after the accession of Estonia ("Lembit", 1935).
After the war died down
battles on land, in the air, on the water and under it.For many years, the Soviet "Pike" and "Baby" continue to defend the home country, and then they were used for training cadets of naval schools.Some of them have become monuments and museums, the other rusted cemeteries submarines.
submarines over the past decade after the war, almost did not participate in the hostilities that are constantly taking place in the world.There were local conflicts, sometimes developed into major war, but the submarines were not combat operation.They are becoming more secretive, moving quietly and quickly, thanks to advances received nuclear physics unlimited autonomy.