Elliptic offers - what is it?

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1861.The novel "Les Miserables" is written.Victor Hugo sent the publisher the manuscript of the novel with the following cover letter: "?" The answer was immediate: "!" ... Of course, elliptical (incomplete) proposals, which will be mentioned in this article, not so brief, but no less dynamic, vivid and emotionallysaturated.This once again confirms the fact that brevity - the sister of talent.So, today, elliptical sentences - this is our "hero", our protagonist, is confused with another, no less important characters - incomplete sentences.Elliptic offers mistakenly believe their kind, but in modern linguistics they are treated separately.They are really easy to confuse.What are their differences?Let's see ....

Elliptic and incomplete sentences

called incomplete proposals which lack the main or secondary members.But they are easy to understand, thanks to restore speech situation.For example, in the sentence "This is the fertilizer must be a raspberry, then - black currants, then - apple" in the first part is not broken grammatical basis.In the second and third parts of the main parts of the sentence - "fertilizer is needed" - are omitted, but they are clear from the context, so they can be safely called incomplete.

Most of these suggestions are used colloquially in the dialogues and descriptions.Elliptic offers - a special type of proposals, the structure of which is not only the predicate expressed by the verb.To recreate an action or an idea of ​​the state does not need context: "The Seller - after him loudly: - Come again!";"In the dark sky - billions of bright stars."In the examples omitted verb "said" and "are."They are easy to understand, but not out of the situation, and thanks to the entire construction.It follows that, despite the formal absence of the main members, they are taking an active part in the construction of sentences, and this brings with incomplete elliptical sentences.In other words, partial and elliptical sentences similar in only one - in the construction of the structure, the absence of one of the parts of the sentence.However, the incompleteness of the first accident, depending on how the text is constructed, and the incompleteness of the second - is its norm, its peculiarity.The table below summarize the above, and will not confuse these concepts:

Incomplete and elliptical sentences, examples



For the purposes of offers complete, understandable

understood only through the context or situation

are understandable regardless of the context or speech situation

None of the sentence

main and secondary, which are restored through

onlyverb-predicate, the lack of which is the norm;the value suggested by the structure and content of the proposal itself


speech situation

  1. Missed part of the sentence has already been named, usually in one of the parts of a complex sentence: OneHe was holding a book in the other - pointer.
  2. absent members are the same as in the previous cue Dialogue:

- You deceived and betrayed him?

- No, it is me.

1. Outside the rain.I put on rubber. (situation suggests that we are talking about boots).

2. We must knock softly and ask: Is it possible? (A person usually says the phrase that comes into the room)

1. Incentive offer: Hurry upstairs!All here!

2. The verb-predicate the value of life, the presence, perception: over the city thick white fog;In the hands of an armful of wildflowers.

3. The verb-predicate the value of thought, speech: I - his word, and he told me - ten.

4. The verb-predicate with a value of displacement, movement: boy into the woods, and she - for him.

5. The verb-predicate the value of vigorous activities, such as throw, hit, miss: started repairing justice: one for hair, who fetched

Use elliptical sentences

In conclusion,I would like to say that expressive, spectacular, emotionally colored elliptical sentences are widely used in everyday speech, and in works of art - in the description, in the story, in the dialogues.There are many cases of their use in the oratory.Most interesting are the cases of the use of ellipses in the headlines of newspapers and magazines.Maximum condensed form, on the one hand, saves "to ink", and on the other - an outstanding and brilliant attracted a record number of readers: "Our children - our family," "the will - with a clear conscience?" "Salvation - inCovenants "," Poetry - First "," A for crusts - in transition. "