On what are mosses (species name, kind of) know not all.In the best case from a school biology course recall the familiar Kukushkin flax or sphagnum moss.In fact, quite a large number for a group of these plants is quite apart from other currently existing.Not found any links or transitional, intermediate forms.In ordinary life, very often confuse not only the names of mosses and lichens, and the plants themselves, meeting them, for example in the forest.Why not find out more detail with these amazing inhabitants of the planet Earth.
Mosses - one of the oldest plants on earth
wide spread Moss family combines a large group of higher plants, which numbers about 25 000 species.Of these, only 1500 species growing in our country.The calculations are approximate, since until now have not been studied very large areas of tropical forests.There is even a separate science that deals with the study of mosses - bryology.The oldest fossils date back to the form of carbon, but scientists admit that they appeared earlier.These are the only plants whose evolution is related to the regressive development of the sporophyte.They are still at the dawn of life on Earth, firmly taken its place in the plant world, and keep it still.
Twenty-two species of wide spread Moss family are listed in the "Red Book of Russia": kampilium Krylov orhidium ocherednolistny, brioksifium Savatier, Angstrom amentaceous, atraktilokarpus Alpine, oreas Martius, induziella Tien Shan, Lindberg brachypterous, Lindberg Blowing, mamillariella crank, krifea multidirectional, doziya Japanese, gomaliadelfus gladkozuby, Necker north, plagiotetsium tupeyshy, taksifillum striped, aktinotuidium Hooker, leptopteriginandrum Southern Alps, giofila wrapped, Fossombrone Alaska, backgammon Japanese, izopahes discolored.
General characteristics of mosses
concepts Moss (Latin name - "bryophytes") and spread Moss family is very broad and incorporates a variety of species.This is mainly undersized perennials height from 1 mm to several centimeters, but there are species reach 60 cm and over.A distinctive feature of mosses is the complete absence of the root system.Their function is performed by special outgrowths of the epidermis - rhizoids.With their help moss body attached to the substrate and receives water containing dissolved minerals.The cycle of reproduction consists of sexual (gametophyte) and asexual (sporophyte) generations.On the one hand, regressive symptoms they threw her far behind compared to other plants of the planet, and on the other - will survive in the harshest conditions, when all others died out.This is due to the fact that they initially took place under the cover of other plants, so neutrally treated as lighting and to heat.The main factor is the presence of moisture moss.But even in her faults, they were able to adapt.There is another amazing feature of mosses - the ability to fall into a state of suspended animation under adverse environmental conditions.At this point, the plant almost stopped all life processes.Mosses can be in a state of suspended animation for decades, successfully surviving extremely low or high temperatures, lack or absence of moisture.
These plants are very fond of damp places, they are spread across the whole world except seas and highly acidic (saline) soils.Very often different types of mosses, whose names are sometimes difficult to be translated from the Latin, found in the tundra.They grow quite slowly (an annual increase of 1-2 mm), if you take one single plant, but, in general, it obtained a very large biomass.
What mosses colonize almost all corners of the planet is due to the fact that this plant oligotrophs.They can grow on even the most meager and poor soils.Animals usually do not eat moss.Their ability to actively retain moisture sometimes lead to waterlogging of the soil.
These plants have a kind of breeding cycle.Names of mosses and their distribution is different, but they are all similar in that in one integrated plant gametophyte and sporophyte.The latter is also called asexual generation.He is represented by a small box with the disputes, which with the help of stem-suckers attached to the gametophyte.The development of sexual generation originates from the time of germination of spores.Originally developed filamentous or laminated education (protonema), which lays the kidneys, from which grows a plate-thallus or stems with leaves, depending on what is a species of moss.Names of sexual reproduction of higher plants are familiar to many from school - it archegonia and antheridia.The first is a female reproductive organs that are typical of higher spore plants, as well as the detachment of gymnosperms.Antheridia - a male organs, they are available in higher plants and algae.
dwell in more detail on the question of what are the mosses.Name two existing classes have very unusual: liver and leafy.Earlier in the same classification included Antotserotovye mosses.But later, scientists came to the conclusion that this diverse group of plants and isolated them in a special section.Each class has its own specific features and characteristics.
Class Pechenochniki or hepatic: moss species, the name and photo
distinctive feature of all types of these plants is a wide variety of gametophytes and sporophytes similarity.The total number of classes is about 300 genera and 6000 species of mosses.They grow mostly in tropical climates.For them, the very characteristic vegetative reproduction is more or less developed parts of the thallus.
There are species that are not fixed either on the ground or in trees, for example, Ricci, floating.Under natural conditions, it is found in the Far East and the Caucasus.Sometimes it is also bred in aquariums.
In Russia also quite common marchantia diverse.This moss grows on the ground.Body Plants (thallium) has the form of multi-layered, highly branching plate and up to 10 centimeters.The plants are dioecious, and reproductive organs are placed on the record in special supports in the form of an umbrella.
What are generic names of mosses liverworts class?Here are some of them: sferokarpus, pallavitsinii, simfiogina, merch, gimenofitum, Metzger, Ritchie.
Class Listostebelnye mosses: examples, names
Listostebelnye moss - it is the most numerous class, which includes more than 15 000 species, united in 700 genera.In addition to its multiplicity, they also differ in important role in plant shell of the Earth.Gametophyte representatives of this class can grow vertically or horizontally.Depending on this, they are divided, respectively, and orthotropic plagiotropnye species.Leafy mosses for convenience divided into three subclasses: sphagnum, Andreev brievye.
Subclass sphagnum mosses
All these names are familiar moss.Plants, subclass, there are more than 300 species (40 species found in our country), and they grow all over the world.All members of the species are reasonably large in size and color of the white-green, brown or red shades.Basically constitute the species of this subclass and tundra vegetation zones are the main source for the formation of peat bogs.
genus Sphagnum, or peat moss, includes 120 species.They all grow in the marshes, covering them with a carpet.Stems annual yield increase of 2-3 cm, and the lower part of the dies and decomposes, but does not rot.The reason for this feature is that the body is formed of moss carbolic acid, an antiseptic.Dead and forms part of the turf, but this process is very slow.Thus, it was calculated that one meter of deposits formed during the year 1000!
Another representative considered a subclass - tortula countryside.This moss grows on trees, it has an unusual name.Habitat: from the tundra to the zone arctic desert.It is attached to the exposed roots of trees and bark and stones.It has a distinctive brown or greenish-brown color, the stem grows up to 10 centimeters.
Here are some of the names under consideration moss genus: sphagnum bog, bulging, brown, girgenzona, magellansky, papillozny.
Subclass Brievye mosses
Subclass quite many, and it includes more than 14 000 species, 1,300 of which are found on the territory of Russia.This is mainly perennial plants reaching very impressive size from 1 mm to 50 cm in height.The color is usually green, reddish-brown or almost black.They grow usually on the ground, rotten wood or leaves.They are absolutely not tolerate saline soils.Well all know the names of these mosses in Russian as Kukushkin flax or scientifically politrihum ordinary, brium voloskonosny.They grow in the northern and central regions of Russia, most often in the woods.
This is a group of small plants (120 species) that grow in cold climates (Arctic and Antarctic).They can be found on the stones and rocks on which they form something like pads.The representatives of this subclass are Andre rock, splahnum red and yellow rosette rodobrium, leukobrium gray, polia drooping, dikranum mnogonozhkovy.These are some types of mosses.Names and photos of other representatives of the subclass can be found in botanical atlases, which will also be given a detailed description of the genus and species.
Antrotserotovye previously considered as mosses and allocated in a separate class.Now they are spread Moss family is defined as a plant with a similar structure of the metal.For thallus characteristic rosette shape on the lower side have rhizoids.That inhabitants of the tropics, and only a few species grow in temperate climates.
How to distinguish from lichen moss?
People often confuse not only the names of mosses and lichens, but in general their appearance.The main difference is that the latter - are representatives of the lower spore plants that appeared on Earth much earlier mosses.Some lichens even have a name that clearly indicates it belongs to quite another group of plants.For example, oak moss, Irish moss, reindeer moss.The names of the original preserved, but to the considered wide spread Moss family, they have no relationship.Oak moss is a beautiful scientific name Evernia Prunastri.If you look at a photo, it immediately becomes clear that this lichen.It grows, as the name implies, the bark of oak, as well as some conifers.
Body lichens - a symbiosis of algae and fungi.They do not have roots and mosses have their likeness - rhizoids.Speaking more simply, the body of a lichen - like a sandwich: the top and bottom of the fungus, and algae in the middle, which are undergoing the process of photosynthesis.The substrate to which is attached a lichen (mostly trees), destroyed by a special acid, which is isolated mushrooms.Moreover, it is capable of destroying even a stone.Therefore, these plants are quite harmful.Thus, when they occur, such as fruit trees, they simply destroy the crust.But at the same time, lichens - a measure of the purity of the air, because they absolutely can not tolerate gassed.The
like ferns and mosses?
Ferns in evolutionary terms are one step above the moss.The reason is that they have a conductive vascular system by which the plant receives water and dissolved minerals.They are more familiar with the people and found everywhere in the woods.Dryopteris and bracken - a famous name.Mosses and ferns still united by one significant similarity: both those, and others do not breed seeds and spores.That is, there is an alternation of sexual and asexual generation (sporophyte and gametophyte).In addition, they are very often the neighbors in their natural habitat, as those and others prefer shade and high humidity.
Mosses moss in a natural environment - it pioneers, they are the first to colonize the territory, climatic conditions often do not fit any other plants.These plants are an integral part of the biosphere as a whole.Mosses create special biocenoses in the tundra, a carpet covering the ground.
They have a very pronounced ability to retain moisture, the benefits of which can be interpreted in two ways.From the first point of view, they regulate the water balance in the soil, and the second - contribute to the eutrophication of forests, meadows and agricultural land.
sphagnum mosses - a valuable source of formation of deposits of peat, which is widely used as a fuel, material for construction and agriculture.In addition, some types are used in medicine, since they have antibacterial properties.But education and sphagnum bogs hypnum is essential for the whole ecosystem.It is the locus of many shrubs and herbaceous plants, home to many game animals and birds.But most importantly, the swamp - is something like a reserve tank with fresh water.After all, like a sponge, soaking up all the rain, and then it gradually gives moisture to the soil small streams that flow from it.Marsh plays the role of regulator of humidity surrounding area.