Russia - a country with a vast territory in the Arctic.However, their development is impossible without a powerful fleet, allows navigation in extreme conditions.For these purposes, in the days of the Russian empire was built more icebreakers.With the development of technology was equipped with more modern engines.Finally, in 1959, it was built nuclear-powered icebreaker "Lenin".At the time of its creation, it was the world's only commercial vessel with a nuclear reactor, which also could be at sea without refueling for 12 months.His appearance in the vast Arctic significantly increase the duration of navigation on the Northern Sea Route.
world's first icebreaker was built in 1837 in the US city of Philadelphia and was intended for the destruction of the ice cover in the local harbor.After 27 years in the Russian Empire was established ship "Pilot", which was also used for ships through the ice in a port area.The place of its operation became St. Petersburg sea port.Somewhat later, in 1896, in England, created the first river icebreaker.It was commissioned by the Ryazan-Ural Railway Company and was used at the Saratov crossing.Around the same time, there is a need for the implementation of the transportation of goods in remote areas of the Russian north, so at the end of the 19th century at the shipyard Armstrong Whitworth was built the first ship in the world to operate in Arctic conditions, called "Ermak".It was purchased by our country, and was a part of the Baltic Fleet until 1964.Another famous ship - the icebreaker "Krasin" (up to 1927 bore the name of "Svyatogor") participated in the Arctic convoys during the Second World War.In addition, in the period from 1921 to 1941 Baltic Shipyard built another eight vessels intended for operation in the Arctic.
first atomic icebreaker: characteristics and description
nuclear ice-breaker "Lenin", which was sent on a holiday in 1985, today turned into a museum.Its length is 134 meters, width - 27.6 meters and height - 16.1 m and displacement of 16 thousand tons.The vessel was equipped with two nuclear reactors and four turbines with total capacity of 32.4 MW, so it is able to move at a speed of 18 knots.In addition, the first nuclear-powered icebreaker was equipped with two independent power stations.Also on board were created all conditions for the comfortable stay of the crew during the months of Arctic expeditions.
Who created the first nuclear-powered icebreaker USSR
Work on commercial vessel equipped with a nuclear engine, has been recognized as a particularly responsible business.After all, the Soviet Union, among other things, desperately needed another example confirming the assertion that the "socialist atom" is a peaceful and creative.At the same time, no one doubts that the future chief designer of the nuclear-powered icebreaker should have extensive experience in the construction of ships that operate in Arctic conditions.In these circumstances, it was decided to appoint for this responsible position VI Neganova.This famous designer before the war was awarded the Stalin Prize for the design of the first Soviet Arctic icebreaker line.In 1954 he was appointed chief designer of the nuclear-powered icebreaker "Lenin" and started to work together with I. Afrikantov, who was charged with the creation of the atomic engine for this vessel.I must say that both scientists designer brilliantly coped with their tasks, for which they were awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor.
What preceded the creation of the first Soviet atomic icebreaker
decision to start work on the creation of the first Soviet nuclear-powered icebreaker to work in Arctic conditions adopted by the Council of Ministers in November 1953.Because eccentricity tasks was decided to build a model of the engine room of the ship of the future in the present value to it to fulfill layout solutions designers.This eliminates the need for any alterations or defects in the construction work on the ship itself.In addition, before designers, designed the first Soviet nuclear icebreaker, was tasked to eliminate any possibility of damage to the ship's hull ice, so in the famous Institute "Prometheus" was a special heavy-duty steel.
history of construction of the icebreaker "Lenin"
to work directly on the creation of the ship began in 1956 at the Leningrad Shipbuilding Plant.Andre Marty (in 1957 it was renamed the Admiralty Plant).At the same time some of its critical systems and components have been designed and assembled at other plants.Thus, the turbine was manufactured by the Kirov plant, propulsion motors - the Leningrad plant "Electrosila", and the main turbine generators were the result of workers of the Kharkov Electromechanical Plant.While descent boat in the water held in the early winter of 1957, a nuclear installation mounted only in 1959, after which the nuclear-powered icebreaker "Lenin" was sent to the passage of sea trials.
Since the ship was unique at the time, it was the pride of the country.Therefore, during construction and subsequent tests have repeatedly shown its high foreign guests, such as members of the government of the PRC as well as the politicians, who held positions at the time the British Prime Minister and Vice President of the United States.
During navigation debut the first Soviet nuclear icebreaker enjoy an excellent reputation by showing an excellent performance, and most importantly, the presence of such a vessel as part of the Soviet Navy will extend the navigation for a few weeks.
Seven years after the start of operation, it was decided to replace the outdated trehreaktornuyu on a two-reactor nuclear plant.After upgrading the ship returned to work, and the summer of 1971 it became the first nuclear-powered surface vessel, which could pass by the Earth from the North Pole.By the way, the trophy of this expedition was the polar bear, given to the team of Leningrad Zoo.
As already mentioned, the 1989 operation "Lenin" has been completed.However, the first-born of the Soviet nuclear icebreaker fleet is not threatened oblivion.The fact that he was put on eternal parking in Murmansk, organized on board the museum where you can see interesting exhibits on the creation of an atomic icebreaker fleet of the USSR.
Accidents on "Lenin"
for 32 years until the first nuclear icebreaker Soviet Union was in order, it occurred two accidents.The first of these occurred in 1965.As a result, it turned out to be partially damaged reactor core.To eliminate the consequences of the accident, part of the fuel was placed on plavtehbazu, and the rest unloaded and placed in a container.
Regarding the second case, in 1967 the technical crew of the vessel was recorded flow in the pipeline of the third circuit of the reactor.As a result, it was necessary to replace the entire bay atomic icebreaker, and damaged equipment towed and sunk in the Gulf of Tsivolki.
Over time for the development of a single expanse of the Arctic nuclear-powered icebreaker was little.Therefore, in 1971 it began construction of a second similar vessel.They were "Arctic" - nuclear-powered icebreaker, who after the death of Leonid Brezhnev began to carry his name.However, in the perestroika years the ship was once again returned to the first name, and it has served under him until 2008.
Specifications second Soviet nuclear-powered
"Arctic" - nuclear-powered icebreaker, which was the first surface vessel, who managed to reach the North Pole.In addition, its design was originally incorporated the ability to quickly convert the ship into battle cruiser auxiliary facilities, capable of operating in polar conditions.This was made possible largely due to the fact that the designer of the nuclear icebreaker "Arktika", together with a team of engineers who worked on the project, provided the ship increased power that allows him to overcome the ice thickness up to 2.5 m. As for the size of the vessel, they add up tolength of 147.9 m and a width of 29.9 m and a displacement of 23 460 tons.At the same time, when the ship was in operation, the maximum duration of its autonomous navigation was 7.5 months.
class icebreakers "Arctic"
In the period between 1977 and 2007 at the Leningrad (later St. Petersburg) Baltic plant was built five more nuclear submarines.All of these vessels have been designed according to the "Arctic", and today the two of them - "Yamal" and "50 years of Victory" continue to pave the way for other ships in the endless ice at the North Pole.By the way, the icebreaker called "50 Years of Victory" was launched in 2007 and is the last produced in Russia and the largest of the existing icebreakers in the world.As for the other three courts, one of them - "the Soviet Union" - currently under reconstruction.Return to the ranks of its plan in 2017.Thus, the "Arctic" - nuclear-powered icebreaker, the creation of which marked the beginning of an era in the history of the Russian fleet. Moreover, used in its design engineering solutions relevant today, 43 years after its creation.
Icebreakers class "Taimyr"
addition icebreakers for the Arctic to the Soviet Union and then Russia needed the vessel at a draft, which was designed to harness the ships in the mouth of the Siberian rivers. Nuclear icebreakers Soviet Union (later Russia), the type - "Taimyr" and "Vaigach"- have been built on one of the shipyards in Helsinki (Finland). However, most of them located on the equipment, including power plants, domestic production. Since these nuclear submarines were designed to operate primarily on rivers and their sediment is 8.1 m and displacement of 20 791tonne. Currently Russian nuclear icebreakers "Taimyr" and "Vaigach" continue to operate in the North Sea Route.Soon, however, they need a change.
Icebreakers type LK-60 I
Court of 60 MW, with nuclear power plant, began to be developed in our country since the beginning of the 2000s, based on the results obtained from the operation of ships type "Taimyr" and "Arctic".Designers should consider the possibility to change the draft of new vessels, which will enable them to work effectively in shallow and deep water.In addition, new icebreakers able to move even in ice thickness from 2.6 to 2.9 m. Total planned to build three such vessel.In 2012, at the Baltic Shipyard was laid the first atomic-powered vessel in the series, which is scheduled to start operation in 2018.
projected new class of sophisticated Russian icebreakers
As you know, development of the Arctic made a priority tasks facing our country.Therefore, at the moment it is developing design documentation for new class icebreaker LK-110YA.It is assumed that these heavy-duty court will get all the energy from the nuclear steam plant with a capacity of 110 MW.The motor ship will serve three four-bladed propellers with fixed step.The main advantage, which will have a new Russian nuclear icebreakers, they should be increased ice passability, which is expected to be not less than 3.5 m, whereas the ships operated today, the figure is no more than 2.9 m. Thus, the designers promiseto provide year-round navigation in the Arctic, the Northern Sea Route.
As is the case with nuclear icebreakers in the world
As you know, the Arctic is divided into five sectors, belong to Russia, USA, Norway, Canada and Denmark.These countries, as well as Finland and Sweden have the largest icebreaking fleet.This is not surprising, since without such ships can not be engaged in business and research tasks among the polar ice caps, even though the effects of global warming, which every year are becoming more tangible.At the same time, all currently existing nuclear icebreakers of the world belong to this country, and it is one of the leaders in the development of the expanse of the Arctic.