Cheese - the pride of France.They are known throughout the world, as they have an unbeatable taste and aroma.
In French, the word "cheese" sounds like "le fromage" (or in the original - le fromage).It is believed that it comes from the distorted "formazh", that is "the formation" or "forming".And this is no accident.For the layout of the curd mass, which is formed by the coagulation of milk, in the form is a very important step in the production of this cheese.
Today France produces more than 500 types of dairy product.And each of them is unique in its kind.French cheeses can be soft or hard, young or seasoned, hard-coated or mold crust, milk goats or cows.
However, experts are not surprised by the diversity of species only this product but also an incredible amount of its forms.For example, French cheeses, photos of which are presented in this article are available in the shape of circles, discs, rectangles, drums, squares, standing and lying cylinders, bars, cones, triangles and hearts.
Why this product is not produced in a single form?The fact that all French cheeses have their own personal history, life, and even character.For example, cheeses such as Camembert and Brie are always manufactured in the form of a disk.It is in this form of the product matures uniformly and it turns out very tasty.Features
all French cheeses not only have its own character and personal history, but also a unique name.In addition, each product is labeled AOC.It means that this sort of owns Appellation d'origine contrôlée, that is Aboriginal-controlled title that can be awarded only to those cheeses that meet all the requirements of current legislation.
Thus, any variety of French cheese should be made only from high-quality raw materials, ie milk.Moreover, the entire process of manufacturing the product must strictly comply with local established recipes and traditions.
cheese, which has a corresponding French name, can be produced only in the region of France where it is historically prepared.
first marking AOC Roquefort cheese was awarded in 1925, and the last - the cheese Rigotti de Condrieu in 2009.
Each state has its own classification of cheeses with their own system and terminology.But most of this product can be easily determined in the group based only on its structure and principle forms crusts form on which depends the amount of moisture in the cheese (or so-called serum).
Based on this system, cheeses from France can be divided into such types as:
- fresh seasoned;
- soft white;
We can not say that this or that French cheese recipe can include a cow, a goat or sheep milk.In addition, this product can be produced on private farms or industrial way.
To understand what the differences are certain types of French cheese, they should be carefully considered.
Fresh cheese is fairly easy to distinguish from other species.After all, they have a white and shiny surface.Such a product does not peel.As a rule, it is ready for use within a few days or even hours after manufacture.
Fresh cheese barely have time to show the flavor of raw materials used in them.Taste them usually described as sweet, milk, sour or refreshing.
French soft cheese Buletti de Cambrai relates to fresh cheese.It is characterized by a high content of moisture.Due to this, it becomes soft.It is made from cow's milk with the addition of parsley, tarragon, chives and other herbs.
Consistency of fresh cheese can be loose, friable or fibrous.Often, however, such a product is manufactured in solid form and resembles butter.
eat fresh cheese by spreading on crisp bread.In addition to it presented a slight fruity wine.
Aged fresh cheeses
Unlike fresh cheese, this kind of matured and dried in cellars with a special regime of humidity and temperature, or in special chambers.This treatment resulted in a product crusts of yeasts and molds.
most famous representatives of this type of cheese are produced in the Loire Valley.As a rule, they are made from goat's milk with the addition of aromatic herbs and spices.Such cheeses are wrapped in chestnut or grape leaves, which are formed on the surface of the mold.
Traditional French goat's cheese Saint-Maure de Touraine is the classic cheese making.Its surface is sprinkled with ash covered a fluffy white mold and spots of yellow, pink and gray pigments.During the growth of the mass of snow-white it becomes more dense.Over time, the lemon flavor inherent in this product becomes a light nutty undertone.
White soft cheeses
cheeses of this type are covered with white crust and has the consistency of grain to almost liquid.They possess unsurpassed mushroom flavor.A more gentle types of French cheese has a slight tinge of young mushrooms and hay, and a solid and sustained resembles cream soup made from wild mushrooms, with a subtle bitterness of dandelion.
This product is made from goat's, cow's or sheep's milk.In addition, often white cheese made from the milk of camels or buffaloes, which undoubtedly contributes to their color.
Crust this kind of cheese can be brittle, thin and covered with white mold and a thick, velvety.These factors depend on the exposure of the product and raw material selection.
young French cheese with white mold has the consistency of chalk.Although with age it becomes creamy.
most prominent representative of soft white cheese is Camembert de Normandie.It is usually served with an elegant red wine "Cote du Rhone".
These types of cheese are quite different from each other in texture and appearance.They are divided into two groups:
- cheeses with dry crust, slowly maturing.Their consistency varies from elastic to soft nutty sweet taste and a thin crust to hard tyanuchih floral with spicy taste and "leather" crust.
- Cheese with sticky orange rind.They have a fairly soft consistency.The taste of the product acute and spicy, with hints of smoke.
good representative semi-soft cheese is Gaperon.It is produced in the Auvergne from cow's milk.A small hemispherical head of this product weighs about 400 g Gaperon has elastic flesh and dry hard crust.The manufacturing process is added thereto pepper and garlic, which give the product a bright taste.In view of the fact that for aging cheese is hung by the fire, it becomes distinct notes of smoke.
Hard French cheese
Large heads of cheese in a big wheel, a drum or cylinder found in almost all countries where the development of cheese-making.As a rule, they are made from goat, sheep or cow's milk.The crust of such a product can be as shiny and smooth, and roughened.As aging aroma and taste of cheese gets complicated.Moreover, a product with a very large period of maturity becomes grainy and even crisp.
Representative of hard cheese is Comté.This delicacy of French cuisine.Made it in the region of Franche-Comte, which is in the east of the country.After making many farmers sent the cheese aged in large dairy companies.In the cellars it mature for two years.
taste of cheese depends on the duration of its exposure.Fully ripe product may have sharp taste.As for the young cheese, it remains soft, milky and nut.
Blue French cheese
Blue mold refers to penicillin.Unlike white, it develops not outside, but inside the cheese.Thanks
blue mold, created a huge amount of cheese.Most of them are wrapped in foil, which contributes to maintaining the wet and sticky cake.
Despite the variety of blue cheese, they have a sharp and spicy taste, and have light metallic notes.The salt content of these grades is much higher than in others.Present them blue mold gives the product not only an unusual color, but also the strongest flavor.
In terms of cheese with a moist crust have irregular cavities and veins of mold.With regard to a solid crust varieties, they are more dense.
most prominent representative of the blue cheese is Roquefort.His homeland are the Midi-Pyrenees.These caves he matures.
According to legend, the product will be about two thousand years ago.Inspired by his lover, the shepherd left his lunch in a slice of bread and a piece of cheese in a cave.On it, he remembered only a few days.When he returned, the shepherd found the cheese appeared in a greenish mold.
Currently Roquefort is made of more than 18 thousand tons per year and exported to almost every country in the world.
slices of cheese is consumed with bread, add it in a variety of sauces, sprinkle them salads and pastas.As a rule, it serves Sauternes or port.Often presented to him, and dessert wines.Their sweet taste hides a sharp and salty cheese, bringing to the fore the flavor of sheep's milk.
In the 16th century, Dutch cheesemakers began to add spices to their cheeses.In this way they create an unusual mixture of fancy flavors.French flavored cheeses that are produced today are popular semi-soft and hard type into which were added herbs, fruits and other spices.
most prominent representative of flavored cheese is Buletti d'Aven.To make it, producers use fresh sediment cheese Mara.He kneaded with tarragon, parsley, pepper and cloves.The product is formed by hand and embellish natural dye Annatto and sprinkle with paprika.By the way, the latest spice gives the cheese a sharp taste.
Top 10 French cheeses
Recipe French cheese may include a completely different raw materials and additives.They determine the taste, color and aroma.The combination of various ingredients allows for an incredible amount of different types of cheese, than, in fact, engaged in cheesemaking.
It should be noted that the French people have long formed their personal preferences with regard to product presentation.Therefore we decided to present you the top 10 French cheeses.This ranking is present all the classic cheese, which should be required to taste each.
first place - Camembert
This French cheese made from cow's milk is probably the best.It is universal, and therefore incredibly popular with fans of this product.
Easy production, coupled with the relative cheapness and excellent taste displays Camembert cheese on top rankings.Three times
place - goat cheese, or Le chèvre
French goat cheese occupies the second place.After all, he has a very bright and distinct taste.This product is ideal for summer salads and toasts.Moreover, it is well baked, and goes well with a variety of wines.
Third place - Breben Basque or Basque sheep cheese
This hard cheese, which is used for making sheep's milk exclusively.He's pretty bold, has a pleasant texture, taste and aroma.
Fourth place - Conte
It is hard French cheese, which gets its name from the region where it is produced (Franche-Comté).Cows milk is used to make this product, graze at an altitude of 400 meters above sea level.Do it in small amounts in the rural cooperative dairies.Technology of production of the cheese remains unchanged for several centuries.
Conte perfectly melted, so it is often used for cooking French cuisine (of different kinds of soups and pies, fondue, salads, sauces, and so on.).Its fruity and creamy flesh tone blends perfectly with white meats, fish and dry wines.
Fifth place - grated Emmental cheese
This has become very popular not only because of its extraordinary flavor and taste, but also because of the form in which it is marketed.After all, modern housewives do not wish to spoil your manicure to grate the cheese and sprinkle with fried eggs, pasta or scrambled eggs.That is why the grated Emmental and was placed in fifth place in the ranking of the most delicious and popular French cheeses.
Sixth place - St. Nekter
This French cheese made from cow's milk, which matures within 5-8 weeks.For its production are used sychuzhyu starter.Its flesh is very soft and elastic.Cheese has a yellowish color and flavor of hazelnuts, salt, mushrooms and spices.
Typically, this product is marketed in the form of a flat cylinder which has a diameter of 21 cm and a weight of 1.7 kg.All cheese Saint-hardened crust Nekter covered.
Seventh place - Cantal
This hard cheese, is a native of central France, more precisely in the Auvergne region.With his production uses very old recipes and technologies.AOC status he has since 1956 produced the product as local dairies and on private farms.
Taste Cantal cheese depends on the duration of its exposure.For example, the fully ripened product has a fairly sharp taste.As for the young cheese, it is very soft, has a nutty flavor and milk.
This product requires a worthy accompaniment.It teaches him a Burgundy wine.
Eighth place - Emmental
This product has a spicy and sweet flavor with a characteristic piquancy.In the context of this cheese are seen large cavity.Their presence explains the manufacturing process, in which bacteria produce carbon dioxide.In some countries, it is called the Swiss, as it is in this state, he was made first.
In combination with cheese like Gruyere, Emmental used for fondue.
Ninth place - Reblyushon
It is a French soft cheese made from cow's raw milk in the Savoie region, which lies at the foot of the Alps.This product is a so-called washed crust.In fact, after pressing it carefully washed in brine.
originally produced Reblochon Arly valleys and tone.Its name comes from the verb reblocher, which translated from French means "milk the cow again."According to legend, in the 16th century peasants paid tax, which depended on the amount of milk produced.To reduce the tribute, in the presence of officials of the cows do not dodaivali.But after the departure tax collectors, this process was carried out again.It is because of this milk farmers and did a magnificent cheese Reblyushon.
This product is produced in the form of a circle, which matures for 2-4 weeks.Ready orange rind cheese has a white bloom and delicate sweetish pulp.
Tenth place - Roquefort
This blue French cheese.It is ideal for salads with fresh vegetables.In addition, this product is served with toast and white wine.Produce it from sheep pasteurized milk.After prolonged exposure Cheese gets a taste of hazelnuts.
Now you know what a dozen cheese is the most popular among the French.But in addition to these grades, it would be desirable to introduce other.If our ranking was 11th, his, without any doubt, would have taken the French soft goat cheese Sainte-Maure-de-Touraine, which has a salty-sour flavor and nutty aroma.It matures it from 10 days to 6 weeks.
In addition, I want to highlight the soft French goat cheese under the name Chabichou du Poitou.It has a specific smell of milk and strong nutty flavor.