Paul 1: internal and foreign policy, the reign

History Paul 1 began in fact with the fact that the Empress Elizabeth, premarital daughter of Peter the Great and Catherine the First (which originally supposed, was the Baltic peasant), with no children of their own, invited to Russia, the future father of Paul.He was born in the German city of Kiel, KP Ulrich Holstein-Gottorp, Duke received the baptismal name Peter.This fourteen (at the time of the invitation), the young man was the nephew of Elizabeth and has the rights on the Swedish and the Russian throne.

Who was the father of Paul I - a mystery

Tsar Paul 1, like all people, he could not choose his parents.His future mother arrived in Russia from Prussia at the age of 15 years, on the recommendation of Frederick II as a potential bride for the Duke Ulrich.There she received the name Catherine Orthodox (Alekseevna), was married in 1745 and only nine years later gave birth to a son, Paul.History has left a divided opinion about the possible father of Paul the First.Some believe that Catherine hated her husband, so paternity attributed lover Catherine Sergei Saltykov.Others believe that his father was still Ulrich (Peter III), since there is an obvious and a portrait likeness, but also aware of the strong hostility of Catherine to her son, who perhaps was born out of hatred for his father.Paul did not like his mother, too, throughout his life.Genetic examination of the remains of Paul still has not done so precisely to establish paternity of the Russian Tsar is not possible.

birth was celebrated throughout the year

future Emperor Paul 1 was a child deprived of parental love and attention as his grandmother Elizabeth, immediately after his birth, took Catherine's son and handed over to the care of nurses and teachers.He was a long-awaited child for the entire country, because after Peter the Great, Russian autocrats have had problems with continuity of power due to the lack of heirs.The festivities and fireworks over his birth in Russia lasted for a year.

first victim of a palace conspiracy

Elizabeth Catherine returned thanks for the birth of a child is very large sum - 100 thousand rubles, but showed his son the mother only six months after his birth.Due to lack of close mother and stupidity too zealous service of its staff, Paul 1, domestic and foreign policy in the future is no different logical grew very impressionable, painful and nerve-wracking.At 8 years old (in 1862) the young prince lost his father, who came to power in 1861 after the death of Elizabeth, was killed a year later in a palace conspiracy.

more than thirty years to the legitimate authority

Tsar Paul 1 was for its time a very good education, which for many years he could not put into practice.In four years, even under Elizabeth, he was taught to read and write, then he mastered several foreign languages, knowledge of mathematics, applied science, and history.Among his teachers were F. Behteev, S. Poroshin, Panin, and taught him the laws of the future Metropolitan of Moscow Platon.Birthright Paul had already in 1862 had the right to the throne, but his mother, instead of regency, she came to power with the help of the Guard, declared itself by Catherine II and the rules for 34 years.

Emperor Paul 1 was married twice.The first time - in 19 years, Wilhelmina Augustine (Natalia Alekseevna), who died in childbirth along with the baby.The second time - in the year of the death of his first wife (at the insistence of Catherine) Sophia Augusta Louise, vyurtemberskoy Princess (Maria Feodorovna), which will give birth to ten children, Paul.His older children to suffer the same fate as him - they will take to their education reigning grandmother, and it is rare to see them.In addition to children born in the church marriage, Paul Simon was the son from his first love - honor Sophia Ushakova and daughter of L. Bagart.

mother wanted to deprive him of his throne

1 Pavel Romanov ascended the throne at the age of 42, after the death of his mother (Catherine died of a stroke) in November 1796.By this time he had a set of attitudes and habits that defined his future and the future of Russia until 1801.For thirteen years before the death of Catherine, in 1783, it has reduced to a minimum his relationship with his mother (it was said that she wanted to deprive him of his right to the throne) and Pavlovsk began to build its own model of state structure.At the age of 30 years, at the insistence of Caterina, he became acquainted with the works of Voltaire, Hume, Montesquieu and others. As a result of his point of view was the following: the state should be "bliss for each and for all," but only under a monarchical form of government.

Coalition to Europe during the reign of

Simultaneously Gatchina, eliminated at the time of the cases, the future emperor was engaged in training military battalions.His love for the cause of military discipline and in part will determine what will be the foreign policy of Paul 1. And it will be quite peaceful, compared to the time of Catherine the Great, but maloposledovatelnoy.Paul first war against revolutionary France (with AV Suvorov), together with Britain, Turkey, Austria, etc., Then broke the alliance with Austria and withdrew troops from Europe.Trying to go with the expedition, along with England to the Netherlands were unsuccessful.

1 Paul defended the Order of Malta

After the Bonaparte in 1799 in France, concentrated in his hands all the power and the likelihood of the spread of the revolution faded, he began to look for allies in other states.And I found them, including in the face of the Russian emperor.At that time, France was discussed with coalition navies combined.Foreign Policy Paul 1 in the period near the end of his reign was associated with the final formation of the coalition against Britain, which has become overly aggressive behavior at sea (attacked Malta, while Paul was Grand Master of the Order of Malta).So, in 1800 between Russia and a number of European countries was an alliance that led against British policy of armed neutrality.

utopian military projects

Paul 1, domestic and foreign policy that was not always understood even by his entourage, wanted to harm Britain and its Indian possessions at that time.He sent an expedition to Central Asia from the Don Army (about 22,500 people), and set the task that they were held in the area of ​​the Indus and Ganges, and "disturbed" to the English there, without touching those acts against the British.By the time it did not exist even a map of the terrain, so the trek to India was terminated in 1801, after the death of Paul, and the soldiers were returned from the steppes near Astrakhan, where they have already reached.

reign of Paul 1 marked by the fact that in these five years, the territory of the Russian has not been carried out any foreign invasions, conquests, too, but have not made any.In addition, the emperor, taking care of the interests of the Knights of Malta, almost dragged the country into direct conflict with the strongest naval power of that time - England.The British may have been his most important enemies, while a great deal of sympathy he had for Prussia, considering the organization of the army and living in those lands its ideal (which is not surprising, given its origin).

Reducing public debt fire

Domestic Policy Paul 1 was aimed at trying to improve the lives and enhance the order in the Russian reality.In particular, he believed that the country belongs to the Treasury, and not to him personally, as a sovereign.So he gave the order to melt the coins, some silver dishes from the Winter Palace and burn part of the paper money of two million rubles to reduce the national debt.He was more open to the people than his predecessors, and successors, hung out on the fence of the palace box transmission of petitions addressed to him, which often fell into caricatures of the king himself, and lampoons.

strange ceremony with dead bodies

reign was marked by Paul 1 and reforms in the army, where he introduced a single form, regulations, unified armed, believing that at the time of his mother's army was not an army and a crowd.In general, historians believe that much of what Paul did, he did in spite of his deceased mother.There were even more than the strange happenings.For example, came to power, he took from the grave the remains of his murdered father Peter III.Then sokoronoval ashes of his father and his mother's corpse, placing a crown on the coffin of his father, while his wife, Maria Fyodorovna put another crown on Catherine dead.After that, the two coffins were transported to the Peter and Paul Cathedral, and the killer Peter III, Count Orlov, carried his coffin to the imperial crown.The remains were buried, indicating a date of burial.

Paul 1, during the reign of which were short-lived, due to such activities gained many misunderstandings.And they introduced innovations in various fields did not cause the support of the environment.The Emperor demanded from all his duties.Known history, when he gave the title of his orderly officer, because the first did not carry its own military ammunition.After such cases, the discipline of the troops began to intensify.Hard orders Paul and tried to instill in the civilian population, a ban on wearing certain styles of dress and wear things demanded the German model of a certain color to specify the size of the collar.

Domestic Policy 1 Paul touched and education, which, as expected, he contributed to the advancement of the Russian language.After accession to the throne of the emperor forbade the florid phrases ordering communicate in writing very clearly and simply.He lowered the French influence on Russian society by banning books in that language (the revolutionary, as he believed), forbade even play cards.In addition, during his reign, it was decided to open many schools and colleges, to restore the University of Dorpat, open the Medico-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg.Among his companions were like gloomy personality, like Arakcheeva and G. Derzhavin, Alexander Suvorov, N. Saltykov, Speransky and others.

As king of the peasants helped

However, Paul 1, during whose reign - 1796-1801, was more unpopular than popular among his contemporaries.Taking care of the peasants, which he rightly considered the breadwinners of all the other classes of society, he introduced the three-day serfdom, freed the farmers from working on Sunday.He thus incurred the displeasure of the landowners, for example, in Russia, and the discontent of the peasants in the Ukraine, where serfdom at the time was not, but she appeared to three days.The landowners were unhappy with the ban and to separate the peasant family during sales, prohibition of ill-treatment, the removal of duties on farmers to keep horses for the army and selling them at reduced prices of bread and salt from government stocks.Paul 1, domestic and foreign policy which was inconsistent, at the same time ordered the peasants to obey all landowners under pain of punishment.

infringement of the privileges of the nobility

Russian autocrat tossed between prohibitions and permissions that may have caused the subsequent murder of Paul 1. He closed all the private printing press, it was not possible to extend the ideas of the French Revolution, but it gave shelter to a high-ranking French nobles,like the Prince de Conde or future Ludwig eighth.He banned corporal punishment for the nobility, but brought them to submit to the twenty rubles and soul tax for the maintenance of local government.

Short reign of Paul 1 includes events such as a ban on the resignation of the nobility, who served less than a year, a ban on the supply of collective petitions nobility, the abolition of the nobility assembly in the provinces, lawsuits against the nobles who evade service.Also, the emperor allowed the state peasants recorded in tradesmen and merchants, which caused dissatisfaction with the latter.

actually based dog breeding in Russia

What acts even gone down in history, Paul 1, domestic and foreign policy is - a thirst for scale transformations?This Russian Tsar allowed the construction of temples of the Old Believers' faith (everywhere), ordinary Poles who participated in the uprising Kosciuszko, began to buy abroad a new breed of dog and sheep, founding, in fact, dog.It is important and the law of succession, which excluded the possibility of accession to the throne of women and establishes the procedure for the regency.

However, with all the positive things, the emperor was unpopular among the people that created the preconditions for the repeated attempts on his life.The murder of Paul 1 has been committed by officers of several regiments in March 1801.It is believed that a conspiracy against the emperor subsidized the British government, which did not want to strengthen Russia in the Maltese region.Involvement in the actions of his sons was not proven, but in the 19th century were some restrictions on studying in Russia during the reign of the emperor.