These principles constitute the basic content of the philosophical concept of positivism, later - neo.Scientific principles of verification and falsification were offered one of the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century, Karl Popper.
original motivation of their development and formulation of a statement by Popper that it serves science as "critical rationalist", which completely rejects the skepticism and relativism.It is an implacable opponent of any totalitarianism, both in social life and in science.Popper has made an enormous contribution to the development of philosophy and methodology of modern science, the provisions of which remain valid today.
As already stated, the principle of verification has been formulated within the framework of the development of philosophical ideas of positivism.According to this doctrine, the aim of all science is to provide some empirical basis, which are unacceptable ambiguity and the impossibility of expressing these data using scientific apparatus.
Popper as such a universal scientific language offers to apply techniques of logical-mathematical analysis and mathematical categorical apparatus that stands out for its elaboration, versatility and accuracy.This methodology of science is called logical positivism.The logical positivists argued that the empirical basis, as a rule, for every branch of science is based on observation.
This idea was publicly announced at a meeting of the Vienna Circle, a member of which was, and Karl Popper, in 1921.The essence of the statement was the following: the criterion of any empirical knowledge is the principle of verification.The content of the principle was as follows: scientific value are just the facts of science that justified "scientific primacy" - confirmed by scientific experiments and experiments are meaningful and separated from all sorts of side effects that can come from a researcher.It should be noted that when the principle verification was proposed in the scientific methodology, there are many different perspectives on the problem of establishing the truth of science as such.That is why this proposal has become a new word in the debate about the adequacy of the methodology of science, and has secured the continuation of the following concepts of philosophical positivism (neo).
However, experience has shown that the principle of verification proved imperfect and many questions of science could not answer.It manifested itself in the narrow limitations of the application.For example, use this method in philosophy, psychology and other "non-mathematical" science was simply impossible.In addition, its imperfection was that they could use only those professionals who possess scientific instruments, apparatus, which could confirm the accuracy of a scientific fact.The common man, this method was not available.And the first to discover the limitations of this method was very Popper.He noted that many scientific facts are a perfect character, and therefore can not be objectively verifiable.And so in order to achieve greater reliability, Popper proposes to add the principle of verification is also another principle - the principle of falsification.
teaching comes from the assertion that science, like everything else in the world, is a dynamic system, so the task of science is not only to explain the phenomena occurring but also to explain the changes.Priority role in this Popper took philosophy.The principle of falsification be possible to verify the scientific fact or phenomenon by refuting them.This, according to Popper, expanded methodological possibilities of science.