ozone layer - a layer of our planet's atmosphere, retaining the most rigid part of the ultraviolet spectrum.Some types of sunlight detrimental effect on living organisms.Periodically ozonosphere thin, there appear holes of different sizes.Through holes appeared on the surface of the Earth can freely penetrate dangerous rays.Where is the ozone layer?What can be done to save it?Discuss the issues of geography and ecology of Earth is dedicated to the proposed article.
What is ozone?
Oxygen in the world exist in the form of two simple gaseous compounds, a part of the water and a very large number of other common inorganic and organic substances (silicates, carbonates, sulfates, protein, carbohydrate, fat).One of the more well-known allotropic modifications element - a simple substance oxygen, its formula - O2.The second modification of the atoms - O (ozone).The formula of this substance - O3.Triatomic molecules formed when an excess of energy, for example, as a result of lightning discharges in nature.Then we will find out what the Earth's ozone layer, why its thickness is constantly changing.
Ozone under normal conditions - blue gas with a sharp, peculiar odor.The molecular weight of the substance is 48 (for comparison - Mr (Air.) = 29).The smell of ozone is reminiscent of a thunderstorm, because after this natural phenomenon O3 molecules in the air becomes greater.Concentration increases, not only where the ozone layer, but also close to the surface of the Earth.It is chemically active substance is toxic to living organisms, but quickly dissociates (breaks).In the laboratory and industry created special devices - ozone generators - for passing electrical discharges through the air or oxygen.
What is the ozone layer?
O3 molecules have a high chemical and biological activity.Accession to the third atom of diatomic oxygen is accompanied by increased energy storage and unstable compound.Ozone will readily decomposes into molecular oxygen and active particles which vigorously oxidise other substances and kills microorganisms.But most of the issues related to smelling compound related to its accumulation in the atmosphere above the Earth.What is the ozone layer destruction, and why it is harmful?
directly at the surface of our planet is always a certain amount of O3 molecules, but with the height of the concentration of the compound increases.The formation of this substance occurs in the stratosphere due to the ultraviolet radiation of the sun, carrying a large amount of energy.
There is a region of space above the Earth, where ozone is much greater than at the surface.But overall sheath consisting of molecules O3 - thin and discontinuous.Where is the Earth's ozone layer, or ozonosphere of our planet?Impermanence thickness of the screen more than once led to confusion researchers.
The Earth's atmosphere is always a certain amount of ozone, there are significant variations in its concentration with altitude and year.Let us examine these issues after find out the exact location of the shield of O3 molecules.
Where is the ozone layer?
noticeable increase of ozone molecules begins at a distance of 10 kilometers and lasts up to 50 km above the Earth.But the amount of material which is available in the troposphere, - it does not display.As the distance from the earth's surface increases the density of ozone.Maximum values occur in the stratosphere, its area at a height of 20 to 25 km.There O3 molecules contained 10 times more than the Earth's surface.
But why the thickness of the ozone layer integrity is a concern of scientists and ordinary people?The boom on the state shield erupted in the last century.Researchers have discovered that the ozone layer over Antarctica has become thinner.Was the main reason for the phenomenon is set - dissociation of molecules O3.The destruction is the result of combined effects of a number of factors, leading among them is man-made, related to the activities of mankind.
In the past 30-40 years, scientists have noted the appearance of holes in the protective screen above the Earth.Alarm messages caused the scientific community that the ozone layer - Earth Shield - heavily degraded.All the media in the mid-1980s published reports of "hole" over Antarctica.The researchers noticed that the hole in the ozone layer increases in the spring.The main reason for the growth of the lesions were identified, artificial and synthetic materials - chlorofluorocarbons.The most common group of these compounds - CFCs or hladogeny.There are more than 40 substances belonging to this group.They come from many sources, because the application include the food, chemical, perfume and other industries.The composition
refrigerants other than carbon and hydrogen, include halogeno: fluoro, chloro, bromo sometimes.A large number of such substances used as refrigerants in refrigerators, air conditioners.CFCs themselves are stable, but at high temperatures and in the presence of active chemical agents react oxidation.Among the products of the reaction are compounds that are toxic to living organisms.
CFCs and the ozone shield
Chlorofluorocarbons interact with molecules of O3 and destroy the protective layer over the surface of the Earth.First thinning of the ozone layer adopted for the natural fluctuation of the thickness, that happens all the time.But over time the hole, like "hole" over Antarctica, have been seen across the Northern Hemisphere.The number of such breaches has increased since the first observations, but they are smaller in size than on the icy continent.
Initially, scientists doubt that it is the process of CFCs cause ozone depletion.These are substances with high molecular weight.How can they reach the stratosphere, where the ozone layer if much heavier than oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide?Observations of the ascending currents in the atmosphere during a thunderstorm, and the experiments proved the possibility of the penetration of different particles with air to a height of 10-20 km above the Earth, where the boundary of the troposphere and stratosphere.
Variety ozone destroyers
in the area of the ozone screen and enter nitrogen oxides resulting from the combustion of fuel in engines of supersonic aircraft and various types of spacecraft.Add to the list of substances, which are destroyed by the atmosphere, the ozone layer, emission of terrestrial volcanoes.Sometimes the flow of gases and dust reach a height of 10-15 kilometers and spread to hundreds of thousands of kilometers.
smog over major industrial centers and metropolitan areas also contributes to the dissociation of O3 molecules in the atmosphere.The reason for increasing the size of the ozone hole is also considered to increase the concentration of so-called greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, where the ozone layer.Thus, the global environmental problem of climate change is directly linked to issues concerning the destruction of ozone.The fact that greenhouse gases contain substances which react with molecules O3.The ozone dissociates oxygen causes the oxidation of other elements.
The risk of loss of the ozone shield
Were there gaps in the ozonosphere to space, the appearance of CFCs and other atmospheric pollutants?These issues are debatable, but the conclusion is the same: the ozone layer is necessary to study and preserve from destruction.Our planet without a screen of O3 molecules loses its protection against hard cosmic rays of a certain length, the absorbing layer of the active substance.If ozone shield thin or missing, the basic life processes in the world are at risk.Excessive UV radiation increases the risk of mutations in the cells of living organisms.
Protection of the Ozone Layer
lack of data on the thickness of the shield in past centuries and millennia complicates forecasts.What happens if ozonosphere completely destroyed?A few decades doctors seeing an increase in the number of people affected by skin cancer.This is one of the diseases to which causes excessive ultraviolet radiation.
In 1987, several countries have joined the Montreal Protocol, which aims to reduce and complete ban on the production of chlorofluorocarbons.It was just one of the measures that will help save the ozone layer - Earth's ultraviolet shield.But CFCs are still produced by industry and enter the atmosphere.However, compliance with the Montreal Protocol led to the reduction of ozone holes.
What everyone can do to save the ozone layer?
researchers suggest that a full recovery of the protective screen need a few more decades.That's when it will stop violent rupture, causing a lot of doubts.Greenhouse gases continue to flow into the atmosphere, launches rockets and other spacecraft growing fleet in the different countries.This means that scientists have yet to develop effective ways of protecting the ozone shield from destruction.
At the household level, each individual may also contribute.Ozone is less will be degraded if the air will be cleaner, there will be less free of dust, soot, toxic emissions from vehicles.To protect the thin ozone layer is necessary to stop the burning of waste, to establish throughout their safe disposal.Vehicles need to switch to more environmentally friendly fuels, everywhere save different types of energy.