role of meat in the human diet is difficult to overestimate.Harmonious and balanced composition and properties of the meat from time immemorial made this indispensable product in the human diet.
mineral substances contained in the meat
in meat include proteins (amino acids lysine, leucine, valine, isoleucine, tryptophan, threonine, phenylalanine, methionine - 20%), lipids (fatty acids - up to 3%), mineralsubstances (vitamins B, PP, E and K - 1%), hormones (nitrogen and nitrogen-free extractives - up to 2%) and moisture.This product - the main supplier of phosphorus element necessary for building bone, as well as cellular metabolism.
What is meant by the word "meat" in the food industry
Meat is the muscle fibers with the surrounding tissues - fat, connective, cartilage, nerve and bone and blood.In some cases, the so-called offal - liver, heart, kidneys, diaphragm, brain, cartilage, flesh of animals and esophagus languages.Seafood and fish do not apply to the meat.
In the food industry the most
Man, chilled and frozen meat
Depending on the thermal state, divided into raw meat fresh, chilled and frozen.
guys This product is considered, from the time when the slaughter took place not more than 6 hours.It is most valuable in terms of microbiology and palatability.Because fresh meat is perishable, it is placed in the refrigerator and allowed to cool to a temperature of fibers and bones 0 ... 4 degrees Celsius.The cooled, fully matured product was followed by freezing.
culinary and technological properties of meat stored if freezing and defrosting implemented correctly.Freezing should be fast in shock mode and defrost slowly, without the use of tools that accelerates the thaw.
Divide meat into categories based on carcass fatness
beef fatness is divided into first and second categories.The first round is labeled with the stigma of second - square.The color purple stigma.Meat young additionally marked with the letter "M", which is placed to the right of the category of fatness.
Pork is divided in three categories and branded nutritional purple stigma:
- fatty pork: lard thickness - more than 4 cm. The stigma round.
- Bacon Pork: lard thickness - 2-4 cm. Stamp circular and the letter "B".
- Meat Pork: lard thickness - 1.5-4 cm. The stigma of a square.
- Pork - trimmings.Tattoo square.
At the Sensory Evaluation of raw meat was evaluated by smell, appearance, color, consistency of subcutaneous fat, tendons and the quality of the broth, which was cooked investigational product.
What should be the quality chilled meat?
Properties meat not subjected to freezing as follows:
- pale pink or pale red fibers;
- to cut the meat slightly moist, but not sticky;
- consistency is firm, elastic, by dint of pressing a finger quite quickly leveled;
- meat juice transparent;
- smell nice, appropriate for the species of animals;
- pork fat - white, beef - light yellow;
- cooked broth clear, with a pleasant flavor and good taste.
Quality defrosted meat
Properties meat has been subjected to freezing shall be such:
- red fibers;
- non-elastic fiber, soft texture, dented by finger pressure are not aligned;
- muddy soup, produces a lot of scale, there is no distinct aroma.
Meat of older animals in contrast to the young has a dark color, thick, dense and tough tendons and films.
The proportion of by-products from pigs - 17%, sheep - 20%, in cattle - 24%.
The first category is the nutritional value of by-products include the following: liver, tongue, kidneys, brain and heart of all kinds of cattle, the udder, the diaphragm, the tails of beef and mutton.
The second: the head without tongue, lungs, lower legs, lips, spleen, esophagus, throat, all types of cattle, heads of rams and sheep, with the language and the brain, the tail and the intestines of pork, tripe, rennet, kaltyk, fetlock joints, earsbeef and pork.
Features cooking offal
greatest consumer value are the by-products of the first category:
- Liver - thanks to the presence of large amounts of vitamins A and B, hormones, calcium, iron and copper.In preparation for use in a food product free from the bile ducts, and with beef, moreover, the film is removed.The liver is used for preparation of pies, stewing and roasting.
- Kidney.Enjoy the white fat and specific smell.With film kidneys removed, cut fat and soaked in several waters for 4-5 hours.Product is shipped soaked with fresh water, bring to a boil and cook for about 5 minutes.The water is drained again, washed with kidney again fill with fresh water and cook until cooked.Cooked kidney is used for frying, sautéing and soups.
- Udder used for pie filling.It is cut into several parts, large vessels are removed, washed with cold water and passed through a wringer twice.
- Languages thoroughly washed brush, scrape off stubborn dirt with a knife and boil in cold water.The skin is removed from the finished hot tongue under running cold water.
-products of the second category - the fetlock joint and ears - carefully singe the fire, scrape dirt and stubble, scalded with boiling water.Fetlock joint is cut along and between the hooves trimmed.These by-products are used to prepare jellies.
Bird Poultry meat - a valuable food product.It consists of digestible proteins, hormones, fats, vitamins and mineral salts.The ratio of full and defective proteins, which characterizes the biological value of a product such as poultry meat, is 13: 1.The nutrient content depends on the species, age, sex, breed and fatness.Chickens contain up to 22%, geese and ducks - about 18%, turkey - up to 24% of the nutrients of the total weight of the carcass.The amount of fat in ducks reaches 50% of the total mass of ink, in geese - 38%.
Sexual features have little effect on the bird's meat.The properties of the meat of these animals are due to age, which is determined by their appearance.In males, it is the spur.In yearling cocks it reaches 2 cm in length.At six-month spur is a small ledge.The old chicken legs are covered with coarse rough skin.Age chickens as determined by the end of the keel bone.In young animals it is elastic, gristly, bends easily, the old - hard, ossified.
waterfowl meat is more dark than the meat of turkeys and chickens.In geese and ducks fiber color does not depend on the position of the muscles, and in turkeys and chickens leg muscles darker color than on the wings and breasts.
Fat - the second main characteristic of which is estimated poultry meat.Properties meat fat-fed birds are considered the best.Chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys the first category have a large amount of fat.
Tips meat processing
- bird before cooking to remove excess feathers, rubbed with flour or bran and burned in the fire, pulling the wings from the body and legs.The remaining stumps pull out with tweezers.
- To keep longer fresh meat out of the refrigerator, it is lowered to 1-5 minutes in salted boiling water.Treated this way the product can be stored for several days in a cool, ventilated place out of reach for the flies.
- Meat can be stored outside the refrigerator for several days if wrapped it in linen soaked in strong vinegar.Before using the product should be rinsed with cold water.
- In the absence of the fridge, even in summer, in hot weather, the meat will remain fresh for several days if to rub it with fresh lemon juice and keep in a cool ventilated area.Lemon juice discourages flies.
- Save the meat can be wrapped it in greaseproof paper and then in canvas soaked in strong salt solution.Periodically wet cloth to keep it dry.
- If the old animal beef before cooking grate mustard on all sides, it will be more tender and will become soft.Just before cooking it should be rinsed with cold water.
- Rigid beef cooked faster if discourage him dining with a hammer.The water in which it is brewed, it is necessary to pour 2-3 tbsp.spoon of vinegar.
- When putting the meat in the oven sprinkle it with hot water or broth.From the cold water, it will be tough.
- To the meat was too dry in the oven, where it is prepared, put a container of water.Evaporating, it prevents the product from drying.
- When the cook the meat, which has a peculiar odor, like a scar, in the water put charcoal (2-3 pieces).It absorbs odor.
- liver will be tastier if before cooking soak it in milk for 2-3 hours.
- Fresh raw liver, if it is necessary to postpone the preparation for some time, keep from drying, coat with oil.
- Sausages and sausage often burst into the boiling water.They can not cook at all, and fry or steam thoroughly in a water bath.