almost everyone familiar with the term "oprichnina."Usually the word is associated with the dark days of the confrontation of Ivan the Terrible, the descendants of feudal princes and boyars.Who is oprichnik?This is a man who was in the ranks of the oprichnina forces or Guard, established by Tsar Ivan the IV framework of political reform in 1565.
Tired of ambition and arbitrariness of the boyars princely aristocracy, which was co-ruler imagines himself emperor, February 3, 1565 Ivan the Terrible by his decree introducing reforms.It was called the oprichnina.Its purpose was to rob opponents of the king all meaning and effect.From now on, the whole country was divided into two parts: the oprichnina and the district council (the territory not included in the oprichnina).The first includes the northeastern land where there was a small amount of concentrated-patrimonial boyars.Oprichnina lasted seven years, but the memory of it is still fresh.
Direct participants reforms
Who is oprichnik?First of all, it is serving the emperor, who was in the ranks of the army of the oprichnina.They could be representative of different masses.Tsarist henchmen Ivan the Terrible took the oath of allegiance.He renounced his family and gave a promise not to communicate with the zemstvo.
Feature guardsmen included distinguishing feature - black robes like monks.They also had special signs - Image broom and a dog's head.It symbolized the strong determination to sweep and vygryzt treason.Thus, one could determine who the oprichnik.Subsequently, the very word of the people began to complain.
essence of the guardsmen
From united in royal ownership of land displays all the descendants of feudal princes, Ivan the Terrible seemed suspicious.All of them were subject to resettle to new lands and the most edge of the state.According to the king, there are traitors could not represent any danger throne.On the former land holdings displaced people settled small landowners and nobles.
Oprichnik consisted of destruction and expulsion of the old nobility.Ivan the Terrible called it "sort out the fellows."Throughout the period of persecution objectionable king oprichnina it was collected almost half of the state.The other half was in the same position and was called "zemshchina."I managed there Boyar Duma.
Of course, all these activities were met with active opposition.Most powerful people did not approve of Russia in the course of centralization and the elimination of the old liberties.Therefore, a large proportion of cases initiated by the opponents of the guardsmen changes artificially lowered the brakes or nullified.These people were allies in other countries, in particular Poland.Many opponents traitors transmit information, and the king had the data on this.
leak important state information represents a direct threat to the governor.Therefore Oprichnik included protection of Ivan IV.In fact, this meant the creation of the first in the Russian special services.All sworn allegiance had to serve as the dogs and protect their sovereign power.Who is henchmen can imagine, having familiarized with the activities of well-known personalities: Malyuta Skuratov, Aleksey Basmanova nobleman, Prince Athanasius Vyazemsky.
Malyuta Skuratov - a nickname the same name currently guardsmen were Gregory Lukyanovich Skuratov-Belsky.Through strict adherence to the king's instructions during the change in the country very quickly proved to be among the most close of Ivan the Terrible.The people became known as the main villain of the time.This happened mainly because of the events of January 1570.Novgorod was suspected of treason in connection with this Malyuta undertook to lead riots in the city, during which thousands of residents were cut.Who is henchmen can also be represented, heard the popular saying: "Do not be so terrible king his Malyuta."It Skuratov became an active performer of all public affairs.
main inspirer oprichnina was Alex Basmanov.He became a leading figure in it blindly following all the instructions of the king.Basmanov mired deposition of Metropolitan Philip, drove him out of the cathedral broom.
direct adviser to the king and one of the main guardsmen was Prince Athanasius Vyazemsky.He possessed the full confidence of Ivan the Terrible.Despite this, at the end of the Novgorod pogrom Vyazemskij as Basmanov, he was accused of organizing plans for the transfer of Novgorod and Pskov Lithuania.
Thus oprichnik are approximations of Ivan the Terrible, a member of the royal reform in 1565 and the direct executor of government guidance to oust the king and neutralize traitors.This member of the "chosen thousands", "Sovereign People."The guardsmen were people from different social strata.And bringing a personal oath of allegiance to the king and the government indicated and the creation of a single formation of the Order.