Mammoth - Mammoth is ... history.

Mammoth - a mystery for more than two hundred years The exciting the curiosity of researchers.What were these prehistoric animals, as they lived and why extinct?All these questions still do not have the exact answers.Some scientists blame the mass death of hunger, the second - the glacial period, the third - the ancient hunters destroys herds for meat, skins and tusks.The official version does not.

Who are mammoths

Ancient Mammoth is a mammal belonging to the family of elephant.Basic types have a size comparable with the parameters of their close relatives - elephants.Their weight usually does not exceed 900 kg, the growth did not go beyond 2 meters.However, there were more "representative" species, whose weight reached 13 tons, height - 6 meters.

differed from elephants mammoths bulkier torso, short legs and long hair.A characteristic feature - a large curved tusks, which were used by prehistoric animals to dig out from under snowdrifts food.They also had molars with a large number of thin pla

tes dentinoemalevyh serving for processing fibrous roughage.

Appearance

skeleton structure, which has an ancient mammoth, much like the structure of the Indian elephant, who lives today.Of particular interest are the giant tusks, the length of which can reach up to 4 meters, weight - 100 kg.They were located in the upper jaw, grew forward and curled up, "driving around" in the party.

tail and ears pressed firmly to the skull, is small in size, color attended straight black fringe on the back stood hump.A large trunk with a somewhat lowered backward based on stable feet-poles.Feet were almost hornlike (very thick) soles, reaches a diameter of 50 cm.

wool has a light-brown or yellowish-brown shade, tail, legs and withers decorated with black spots visible.Fur "skirt" flows down the sides, reaching almost to the ground."Clothing" prehistoric animals was very warm.

Mammoth Tusk - an animal tusk which was unique not only high strength, but also a unique range of colors.The bones lay buried for several millennia, passed mineralization.They have gained a wide range of colors - from white to purple.Darkening, which occurred as a result of the nature, increases the cost of a tusk.

tusks of prehistoric animals were not as perfect as instruments of elephants.They are easy to grind, provided themselves with cracks.It is believed that the mammoths extracted using them for himself food - branches, tree bark.Sometimes animals tusk 4 was formed, a second pair of fine workmanship, often fused with the core.

unique colors make mammoth tusks in demand in the production of luxury boxes, snuff boxes, chess sets.They are used when creating a gift figurines, ladies jewelry, expensive weapons.Artificial reproduction of special colors is not possible, and this is associated with the high cost of the products created on the basis of mammoth tusks.Real, natural and not fake.

Weekdays mammoths

60 years - the average life expectancy of giants that inhabited the earth thousands of years ago.Mammoth - a herbivorous animal food for him were mainly herbaceous plants, tree shoots, small shrubs, moss.Daily rate - 250 kg of vegetation, forcing the animals to spend on food about 18 hours a day, constantly changing deployment in search of fresh pastures.

Researchers believe that mammoths practiced herding lifestyle, gathered in small groups.Standard group consisted of 9-10 adult members of the species were present, and Young.As a rule, the role of the leader of the flock entrusted to the oldest female.

By age 10 animals reached sexual maturity.Matured males at this time the mother left the herd, moving to a single existence.

Habitat

Modern research has established that the mammoths appeared on Earth about 4.8 million years ago, have disappeared only about 4 thousand years ago, instead of 9-10, as previously anticipated.These animals lived in the lands of North America, Europe, Africa and Asia.The bones of the mighty beasts, drawings and sculptures, depicting them, are often found at sites of the ancient inhabitants of the Stone Age.

mammoths in Russia were also distributed in large numbers, particularly interesting findings is famous Siberia.The vast "graveyard" of these animals were found in the New Siberian Islands.In Khanty-Mansiysk, even a monument in their honor.By the way, in the lower reaches of the Lena it was first (officially) found the remains of a mammoth.

mammoths in Russia, or rather, their remains are found so far.

reasons extinction

Until now, the history of mammoths has large gaps.In particular, it concerns the reasons for their extinction.They put forward a variety of versions.The original hypothesis stated Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.According to the scientist, the absolute extinction of the species is not possible, he just turns into another.But officials descendants of mammoths are not currently identified.

Georges Cuvier did not agree with my colleague, blaming the deaths mammoth flood (or other global catastrophes that occurred during the disappearance of the population).He claims that the earth is often faced with short-term disaster, a certain kind of completely exterminated.

Brocchi, a paleontologist hails from Italy, says that a certain period of existence released every living being on the planet.The disappearance of entire species scholar compares with aging and death of the body, so, according to him, and ended with the mysterious history of mammoths.

most popular theory, which has many supporters in the scientific community - the climate.About 15-10 thousand years ago in connection with the melting of the glacier northern tundra area became a swamp, filled with southern pine forests.Herbs that previously constituted the base of the diet of animals, replacing the moss and twigs, which, according to the scientists, led to their extinction.

ancient hunters

How hunted mammoths first people - not determined until now.That hunter of those times are often accused of destruction of large animals.In favor of the version of talking product created from the tusks and skins, which are constantly found in the parking places inhabitants of ancient times.

However, studies of our days make this assumption is increasingly questionable.According to some scientists, people only finished off the weak and sick members of the species are not leading healthy hunting.Bogdanov, the creator of the work, "Mystery of the Lost Civilization", leads a reasonable argument for the impossibility of hunting mammoths.He believes that the weapons possessed by the ancient inhabitants of the Earth, pierce the skin of these animals is simply impossible.

Another strong argument - stringy tough meat, hardly suitable for food.

Relatives

Elefasprimigenius - was the name of the mammoths in Latin.The name refers to their close relationship with the elephants, as the translation sounds like "elephant firstborn."It has even been the hypothesis that the mammoth - a progenitor of modern elephants, which were the result of evolutionary adaptation to the warm climate.

study of German scientists, who compared the DNA of the mammoth and an elephant, said that the Indian elephant and mammoth are two branches, genealogy that leads from the African elephant is somewhere 6 million years.The ancestor of this animal, as shown by recent discoveries, lived on Earth about 7 million years ago, making the version having the right to exist.

Known instances

"Last mammoth" - the title of which can be assigned to calf Dima, a six-month baby mammoth, whose remains were found working in 1977 near Magadan.About 40 thousand years ago, this little guy fell through the ice that caused his mummification.This is by far the best preserved specimen that was discovered by mankind.Dima became a source of valuable information for those engaged in the study of extinct species.

Equally famous Adams mammoth, which was the first complete skeleton, which was shown to the public.This happened back in 1808, since a copy is located in the Museum of the Academy of Sciences.Finding belonged Osip Shumahovu hunter who lived collecting mammoth bones.

Berezovsky Mammoth has a similar story, he was also a hunter tusks found on the banks of a river in Siberia.Terms of excavations of the remains had not been a favorable recovery of parts produced.The remaining mammoth bones have become the basis for a giant skeleton, soft tissues - the object of study.Death overtook the animal in 55 years.

Matilda female prehistoric species and found all the students.An event occurred in 1939, the remains were found on the banks of the River Oesh.

Revival possible

modern researchers not cease to be interested in such prehistoric animals like mammoths.The value of the prehistoric discoveries in science is nothing but as a motivation underlying all attempts at his resurrection.So far, attempts to clone extinct species did not give tangible results.This stems from the lack of material required quality.However, research in this area and do not think off.Currently, scientists rely on the remains of a female found not so long ago.An instance is valuable because it has remained liquid blood.

Despite the failure of cloning, it is proved that the appearance of the ancient inhabitants of the earth restored to accuracy, as well as his habits.Mammoths look exactly as they are represented on the pages of textbooks.The most interesting discovery - the closer the stay detected species to our own time, the more fragile is its skeleton.