Exaltation of the Cross - the icon, which has a number of images.This is due to the fact that every painter described the finding of the Cross of Jesus in different ways, trying to identify the main parts.For Christians, that time is a huge event, so in his honor was built a number of temples, churches, composed of prayer, song, troparion, sacred texts, set the date of the festival of the same name.
Exaltation of the Cross: The Story
Historical facts say that the return of the Life-Giving Tree was due to Emperor Constantine the Great and his mother Helena.Constantine was on the old Roman, by faith, like his father, a pagan, while his mother was a Christian.After his father's death Empress Helena actively engaged in the spread of Christianity.Son came to this faith at once.This was facilitated by the sign in front of one important battle.Long doubt, torture, treatment, pleading to God contributed to the sign - the appearance of the cross in the evening sky.It saw the emperor with his army.At night, he, too, had a Jesus who notified him of the impending victory over the enemy, if clothing, weapons, banners soldiers will be depicted his character.
Constantine, God's will, won the battle.In the midst of the conquered city erected a statue holding a cross.But this case did not lead to the emergence of a new religious festival - "Exaltation of the Cross."Its importance was recognized by people later.In the meantime, the son of Constantine's mother asks to find a life-giving tree.
She went home Christ (Jerusalem), the old Jew learned the exact location of the tomb.The cross was a pagan temple (the pagans to the Christian shrines built their temples, altars of sacrifice, trying to memorize humanity, but in doing so made the mark for Christians).
When the earth dug out, they saw three crosses.According to legend, the Empress Helena with Patriarch Macarius determined by the cross of Jesus his miraculous power.Each found a plate in turn applied to the sick woman, and then to the dead.The result was immediate: a woman healed, and the dead rose.All those present even more believe in God, wanted to venerate the cross.But since there were many people, the bishop became a sublime place to erect a life-giving tree of all gathered with the words, "Lord, have mercy."Hence the name - Exaltation of the Cross.Prayer was composed later.It Christians bow Cross and glorify the name of the Lord.
Emperor Constantine's mother Helena did much to Christianity.During their reign the persecution of Christians ceased, built temples, monasteries, churches, church.Only after the Cross of Jesus was found eighty-based churches on Palestinian land, which trod the son of God.The Empress Helena had brought the son of the Holy Cross with nails.Constantine ordered to build a temple in honor of this event, which was built and consecrated ten years later.The opening day (Sept. 14 335 years) becomes the date of the celebration of the Exaltation.
mother did not live up to this event, and Constantine himself became a Christian shortly before his death, believing it impossible to take the sacrament earlier.For their services the church with her mother carried her son to the saints, given the status of Sts.Their faces display icon "Exaltation of the Cross."
significance of this holy day
There is another legend of the Tree of Life-giving.When attacking the Persians, led by Chosroes II had been stolen the Cross of the Lord, together with the Patriarch Zacharias.Fourteen years later the Emperor Heraclius defeated the Persians freed the patriarch of the Christians returned the shrine.When he carried the cross to the temple of the Holy Cross, is on Mount Calvary was not able to take a step.Patriarch Zachary explained the reason for this phenomenon, so the Emperor took off his royal robes, and has brought life-giving tree inside the building.What of the two legends is the basis of the Exaltation of the celebration?Nobody has still not decided, but historians can not give a precise explanation.Because Orthodox Christians celebrate the merits of Helena Constantine and Catholics talk about the Emperor Heraclius.
Church celebrated feast of the Exaltation Catholics and Orthodox Christians on different days with three hundred and twenty-six, when they found the cross of Calvary.Catholics is September 14, and the Orthodox - September 27 (meaning the calculation of the Gregorian calendar).
Triumph has a certain sequence, the main role is played by the icon "Exaltation of the Cross."The value of the holiday displays it another name - Exaltation of the Holy Cross, that is the glory of the name of the Lord through the Exaltation of the Cross.Triumph is one of the twelve major holidays coming after Easter (because its other name - twelve great).As Easter, it has a pre-(day) and postprazdnichny (week) periods.
difference between the Catholic and Orthodox holiday
Earlier Orthodox Christians on the eve of the Exaltation from dusk till dawn committed Vigil with a small evening.At specific times the life-giving tree is transferred to the throne of the altar.Today this ceremony is rare, because the cross is placed on the throne in advance.The altar at the morning is read the Gospel, then there is the voice of melody.Exaltation passes without kissing the Gospel and the anointing after his reading.
Once fully clothed priest, begins the Great Doxology.Abbot perform certain actions with a cross, reads the troparion Exaltation of the Cross.Further, the troparion is sung three times with prostrations, and then all transferred to stichera with the anointing oil.Ends litany liturgy, freeing the liturgy.
Catholics celebrate the feast in the evening or in the morning (it all depends on the weekday or Sunday account for 14 September).Evening service begins with the Latin rite, and the morning is composed of three nocturnes on the history of the return of the Holy Cross, the Pope's sermon.The sequence of steps spelled out in the Catholic holiday Missal (prayer books).So no change, and a sermon on the Exaltation of the Cross the lines of the Holy Week.
Since the festival is celebrated by Orthodox and Catholics in different ways, the icons have different stories.From the fifteenth century painters depict a lot of people at the temple, the center occupied by the deacons to the patriarch, who erects a cross, decorated with plants, and the other side shows the Emperor Constantine's mother Helena.
Prior to this period, the icon has undergone various changes and acquired a different kind:
- Constantinople, Hagia Sophia shows the twelfth century on the icon images of Sts Constantine Helena, who cling to the cross.This image is painted, carved out of wood, is composed of a mosaic.
- The Romanian Bistrita Monastery Exaltation of the Cross - the icon - shows the trinity: Constantine Elena pray about the patriarch.
- Vatican eleventh century miniature depicts Emperor Basil II with the Cross with the bishops.By the way, the Catholics and the Orthodox bishop is always close to the deacons are depicted guarding the Cross.This is due to a legend that one of the common people, worshiping the life-giving Tree, chewed off a chip.Because deacons observe the behavior of Christians at the time of the Exaltation.
- Moscow icon seventeenth century tells about the celebration of the Exaltation.Before the temple is the patriarch Makarios with the deacons and life-giving tree.Judging by the position of the hands, perhaps, Bishop holds troparion Exaltation of the Cross.On both sides are St Constantine Elena.Below is the church choir singers.On the sides are located with the holy apostles.
- Chapel of San Silvestro thirteenth century tells the story of the excavations of Helena.People dig the tomb of Jesus, where are three crosses.In the foreground of the image portrayed by the ailing, to be reminded of the miraculous power of the Life-Giving Tree.
The main difference from the Orthodox Catholic icons - this image of the historical fact of the return of the Cross.Orthodox depict Helen Constantine and Catholics - the emperor Heraclius.Thus, like the Christians, and different icon of the Holy Cross, the value of all the same - faith in God, acceptance of the fact of the Resurrection of the Son of God, the veneration of the Cross as the salvation of the human race.This religious festival is dedicated not crying about the sufferings of Christ, and the joy after their ordeal.The Cross is regarded as an instrument of redemption, raising his Christians glorify the name of Christ.
History of crucifixion
Over time, the life-giving Tree pilfered the pieces in different churches, Christians are now only figuratively glorify the name of the Lord.In this Gospel never mentions the origin of the cross, in contrast to the apocryphal tales.Bogomil According to legend, the tree of good and evil from the Garden of Eden formed three barrels, marking the Adam and Eve of the Lord.After the expulsion of people from paradise was only a trunk of God, and the other two parts of the tree fell to the ground.It will be made of them for the crucifixion of Christ (meaning the Exaltation of the Cross).Photo Apocrypha can be found in museums and chronicles (most popular works of Piero della Francesca).
On the "gold" legend, after the death of Adam sprouted dry branch of the tree of Good and Evil, which brought his son from Archangel Michael to extend the days of his father.The tree is grown until King Solomon, who cut it down to build a temple.However, timber built bridge, which has refused to go to the Queen of Sheba, to make all the value of the tree.Solomon hid the board, but after some time he was found.Tree bathed water, which had medicinal properties, because here was founded in Siloam font.After the capture of Jesus timber that floated to the surface, and the Jews used it for the basis of the crucifixion.Transverse boards were obtained from other species of trees.
Church of the Exaltation
first church built in honor of the Life-Giving Tree was built on Palestinian land in the fourth century, when the Empress Helena.Then, over time, have any of Antioch, Constantinople, Alexandria, the Roman church.Once writers are canons and stichera.The most famous are the creators of Cosmas, Theophane, who wanted to link the scenes of the New and Old Testament.For example, referred to the inverse images of the patriarch Jacob, Moses, Mother of God and communicate with Jesus, life-giving tree.Over time the prayers were composed, Troparion, Kontakion, canons and akathist Exaltation of the Cross.
Today creates thousands of churches, temples, monasteries, cathedrals in honor of the Life-Giving Tree throughout Russia (Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Yekaterinburg, Perm, Sverdlovsk region, Kaliningrad, Krasnoyarsk, Omsk, Petrozavodsk, Tutaeva, St. Petersburg, the Republic ofKomi, Kizlyar, Sevsk, Tver, Belgorod, Voronezh, Izhevsk, Irkutsk, Karelia, Kalmykia, Ufa, Kaluga).
in other countries Christian religious sites also have built in honor of the Exaltation.In Ukraine, these churches are located in Dnepropetrovsk, Donetsk, Luhansk, Kharkiv, Poltava, Kamenetz-Podolsk, Uzhgorod.In Moldova, Tiraspol is under Kitskany New Neamt monastery with numerous buildings.There is also a museum library with rare books and sacred objects, describing the Exaltation of the Cross (the icon, prayer, songs, and other paraphernalia Christian religious holiday described in church publications).
As you can see, all over the world can be found monasteries, churches, cathedrals, temples built in honor of the Life-Giving Tree.Many of them saved Christian shrines, religious services are held.Others are used as a cultural tourist sites.More focus on the Moscow church.
Inactive Moscow churches Exaltation
- Holy Cross Church. rebuilt to six hundred and eighty-first tysyacha year Russian Tsar Fyodor Alexeyevich.Worship does not pass, as the church, along with other religious buildings of the prisons of the Kremlin Grand Palace, and considered part of the residence of the Russian president.
- temple of St. Nicholas Monastery Exaltation of the one faith. Construction of the facility was completed in eighteen hundred and sixth year, and consecrated by Metropolitan Filaret, he was only forty-eight years.Was destroyed by the Bolsheviks in the nineties passed into the possession of the Church, the means of which the restored historical building.Temple does not conduct current sermon Exaltation of the Cross, as it is considered an object of cultural heritage of Russia.
- Serpukhovskaya Vozdvizhenskaya church. built to seven hundred and fifty-fifth tysyacha year on charitable donations Kishkins merchant family.Church existed before the Soviet times, and then, like many religious sites, was closed and later destroyed.Now its premises are used by a textile warehouse.
Existing Moscow churches Exaltation
- Old Believer Church of the Exaltation. Located in the Preobrazhensky District of Moscow.The temple was built in eighteen hundred and eleventh year in the women's community site of the Transfiguration.Old Believer Church of the Holy Cross continues to operate, although values under the Soviet regime were taken to Holy Cross church.
- Altufevskoe Vozdvizhenskaya church. Created under the direction of the Temple II Sonya to seven hundred and sixty-third tysyacha year on the estate Altufievo, near the pond.Trinity Church is part of the Moscow diocese deanery district, it is still in effect.
- Exaltation temple on pure Ravine. enter the central deanery district Diocese of Moscow.The name is derived from the ravine, on which were taken in the nineteenth century with the royal stables manure.The temple was built to the thousand seven hundred and eighth year.The Soviet period has left its mark on religious activities, but in 1992 resumed service.So today's Christians can also listen to akathist Exaltation of the Cross.
- Cherkizovsky Exaltation temple. It is also called the Church of Elijah the Prophet.Now part of the Resurrection deanery district of the Moscow diocese.Ilya Ozakovym temple founded in the fourteenth century.Twice the church was reconstructed, but not because of the Soviet anti-religious views, but because of the lack of space for the congregation.This is one of the few churches that survived the Soviet period, as the congregation with the clergy million rubles sent Stalin to the needs of the soldiers of the Great Patriotic War.
- Jerusalem Women's Exaltation Monastery. Built to eight hundred and sixty-fifth tysyacha year in the Domodedovo district of Moscow region.Previously, it housed a hospice, which eventually evolved into the community on whose territory it was built three churches: Our Lady of the Assumption, Our Lady of Jerusalem and the Third Temple - "Exaltation of the Cross" (the icon with a cross and an image of the Virgin Mary was in every church).In Soviet times, the monastery was closed, but in the years of perestroika (1992) was transferred to the Moscow Patriarchate for the continuation of religious activities.
- Brusensky Assumption convent. located on the territory of Kolomna, Moscow Region.Originally founded to five hundred and fifty-second tysyacha year as the male temple, but existed in this form before the Time of Troubles.The convent, in spite of the many religious buildings, was closed by the Soviet authorities and then partially destroyed.Since 1997, construction began to recover, and by 2006 the entire monastery was restored.
- Kolomna Church "Exaltation of the Cross." prayer was held in the church of the same name from the 1764 festival.But after seventy-three years, the church was rebuilt at the expense of nurses and NK Kolesnikova MK Sharapova.Under Soviet rule, it housed a cardboard factory.To date, the church acts as an object of cultural heritage of Russia.
- Exaltation Church in Darney. Refers to the Istra district of the Moscow diocese deanery.Initially, the temple has earned with 1686.