art of war of any state is filled with specific traditions that have been formed over the centuries.Ability to wage war famous for beautiful, many countries in the world history, but only some of them have preserved ancient traditions in our time.Experience shows that such States are the most combat-ready, because the war for their soldiers is an innate instinct.Some of these countries include Switzerland, famous for its mercenaries, Germany, which has twice fought a war against the whole world, the United Kingdom, with its best sailors, as well as Spain, whose infantry is known to the whole world.But in the history of the world there is another country, whose army is no worse than the above.This state has repeatedly led war with China, Russia, and also played an important role in World War II.Thus, the article will be discussed about the structure, size, history and other features of the army of the State Japan.
imperial army - the source of the modern Armed Forces Japan
Japan's modern army - a historical echo of the formerly existing troops, which was known to the whole world his ruthlessness, strength and power.However, the creation of Japanese troops was preceded by a series of reforms.Initially, the formation of a unified military in Japan was not.The basis of defense were specific samurai militia, which practically did not respond to control.But by 1871, the country appears Imperial Japanese Army.The basis for the formation of the military troops have served multiple separate principalities (Choshu, Tosa, Satsuma).The main regulatory bodies were the Ministry of the Army and Navy.Within a few years the imperial army became a formidable force, which has repeatedly demonstrated its strength in the battles with the Russian Empire, China and the British colonies.But the history of the Imperial Japanese Army was sealed when the country entered into an alliance with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.
In 1945, Japan was defeated in World War II.The occupation forces of the United States eliminated the imperial army, and by mid-1947, were closed absolutely all military schools, banned the traditional martial arts classes.Since then, the State Japan is under the full control of the United States.Already in 1951, the American authorities are allowed to place its military bases in Japan.After that, the state gradually begins to develop its own armed forces, who acted solely on the basis of defense of the state.Thus, in Japan, there are defense forces.By the beginning of the XXI century, these forces have become a professional military force, worthy of the status of the armed forces.At the same time lifted a ban on the use of the Armed Forces of Japan for the state.Today, Japan's Self-Defense - a professional army, which has its own structure and a clear list of tasks.The number of the army is 247 thousand people.
Principles of the armed forces in Japan are based on the principles that have absorbed a lot of moral norms and political doctrines.There are only five basic principles:
1. Refusal to attack.This means that the government will not use its forces to direct attacks, violation of territorial integrity of other states.
2. Failure to use nuclear weapons.
3. Ubiquitous continuous monitoring of the activities of the self-defense of Japan.
4. Military cooperation with the United States.After World War II, Japan is the biggest US military ally outside NATO.
presented a list of principles is not exhaustive, as Japan seeks to ensure full transparency of its military activities.
ambiguity of the legal status of
It should be noted that the Japanese army has an ambiguous legal status.Japan's constitution forbids creating any military formations on the territory of a State that is enshrined in Article 9 of the Basic Law.In turn, self-defense - is civic formation, in other words, not a military one.However, none of the existing countries in the world can not do without a strong, professional army.Japan this is no exception.But the lack of legal basis for the application of substantially restrict the scope of activities and where you can apply the armed forces of Japan or the Self-Defense Forces.
structure of the Self-Defense Forces
Along with the armies of other states, the army Japan today has a standard structure of four basic elements.Ease of construction of such armed forces due to the operational interaction between the individual elements.The following structural elements that make up the army of Japan, namely:
- Ground forces of self-defense.
- Navy defense.
- Air Self-Defense Force.
The fourth basic element of the armed forces are a special service.They are usually distinguished as a separate unit of the system, since they have their own hierarchy and complex internal structure.
land and air self-defense forces
imperial army was famous for its military-air forces, which were very effective during the Second World War.Today, Japan Air Self-Defense Force took over the tradition of the imperial army, but they have very different goals.Aviation is designed to protect the airspace of the State, as well as the destruction of enemy air forces in the event of a direct attack on Japan.The country has a strong aviation technology and several structural military forces within the Air Force.Japan Ground Self-Defense Force essentially "cut" because the state is forbidden to create a motorized assault units in the structure of the army.However, these troops have artillery, infantry, tank and helicopter divisions, which fully ensures the defense of Japan.On the arms of land forces in Japan a large number of heavy and light tanks, armored vehicles (IFV), armored personnel carriers, artillery, mortars production of different countries.
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
Naval forces are the principal way to protect the territory of Japan, because the state is located on several islands.This is the most efficient part of the armed forces.Many scientists compare the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force with the US Navy as equal in the war at sea.Japanese Navy consists of four main squadrons, which are based in different parts of Japan: the first in Yokosuka, Sasebo in the second, the third in Maizuru, fourth in Chur.But there is one minus the Navy - Marine Corps is absent.This fact is due to the principle of non-aggression, which is the base for the Japanese Army.The Marine Corps does not exist, because the state is simply not allowed to have it.As part of a large number of Navy destroyers, destroyers, aircraft carriers and submarines of different classes and levels.Also, the fleet has numerous support ships and floating bases.
Special services Special services are allocated to a separate group of agencies that constitute a separate element of the structure of the Armed Forces of Japan.All of them have their own regulatory framework, as well as a number of specific functional tasks.Some of these services include:
- Information and Research Bureau (service activity is not clear precisely because of the small number of employees and a large degree of secrecy).
- Military intelligence service (which is based on the achievements of the Imperial Army Intelligence, and largely adopted the experience of intelligence of the United States).
- Information management and research.
- Police Headquarters (the main body of public safety).
- Management of investigations.
- Military Counterintelligence (main counterintelligence agency of Japan).
In addition, Japan is constantly creating new services with the development of social and international relations.
In addition it should be noted that the size of the army in Japan is increasing every year.In addition, the increases and the amount of money that the government spends on the military.Thus, to date, Japan's self-defense - is one of the most professional and dangerous armed groups in the world, and even with the neutral status of the state.