More recently, the name of the "Donetsk" for millions of people in all corners of Europe, associated with football.But 2014 was a period of hardship for the city, whose residents were at the forefront of the war waged by a handful of adventurers against the civilian population.As one of the great in order to understand the present and predict the future, you need to look into the past.Therefore, those who wish to understand the events that have occurred in recent months in the east of Ukraine, a lot can tell the story of Donetsk.So when and by whom was founded this city and why his people do not want to submit to the Kiev authorities, conducting anti-Russian policies?
in the capital of Donbass people have lived since time immemorial.This is evidenced by archaeological finds discovered during excavations made in some areas of the city during the last century.Scientists believe that in different periods there were temporary or permanent settlement of the Scythians, Cimmerians, Sarmatians, Goths, and later the Slavs.However, in the period from the 13th to the 16th century, people left this place because of the nomads and the new settlement there began to appear after the land came under the control of the Don Cossacks.
history of Donetsk since the mid 18th century to early 19th
active Kalmius settling basin and surrounding lands began in the 18th century on the orders of Catherine II.In 1760 on the territory of the Kiev region of Donetsk was founded modern Alexander Sloboda, who later became the village.Around the same time, the neighborhood appeared settlements Krutoyarovka and Grigorievka.Their inhabitants, along with agriculture were engaged in coal mining, large deposits of which became known after the riverbanks Kurdyuchya visited the expedition, sent on mineral exploration by Peter the Great.In 1820 the first small mines were right next to Alexander.It was then that began the history of Donetsk as a major coal mining centers in Europe.
In 1841, 3 mines were built the Alexander mine, and by the mid-19th century, the number of companies engaged in coal mining in the region has reached 10. A few years later by the Russian Empire signed a contract with SV Kochubey.Under the terms of the deal in the Donbas it was to be built a large plant for the manufacture of railway rails.In 1869 Kochubey concession sold for 24 thousand pounds of English industrialist John Hughes, who started the construction of a metallurgical plant near the village of Aleksandrovka.In addition, he founded the village Yuzivka for operating a new plant.Thus began the history of Donetsk, the founding year of 1869 is considered to be the first.Three years later, the blast furnaces were put into operation, and combine Hughes was one of the most important industrial centers of Russia.In just 15 years, the population of the camp metallurgists increased by 50 times, it turned into an industrial city, where acted Telegraph, a hospital, several hotels and a school.They even had their own, as would be said today, an elite neighborhood in which they lived, engineers and other professionals who came to Yuzovka employment contract.Locals called it a British colony, and were jealous of its inhabitants, which were available creature comforts such as running water and electricity.
Donetsk: history of the city after the October Revolution
At all times, the miners' groups differed cohesion and organization, it is not surprising that from time to time in the city held mass demonstrations by workers demanding better working conditions and higher wages.In particular, in 1892, 15,000 miners staged skirmish, which was brutally suppressed by the government.It is not surprising that in March 1917, elections were held in Donetsk Soviet of Workers' Deputies, and after the October events in Petrograd, the governing body said the support of the government headed by V. Lenin.After that, the city has repeatedly passed from hand to hand, and only in December 1919, became part of the USSR.And even after that, the map of eastern Ukraine, more precisely the boundaries of this country with the RSFSR, is controversial.The fact that a significant part of the population, and many politicians and intellectuals have expressed great doubts legality accessories Donetsk of Ukraine.
Photos Donetsk early Soviet years show that the city had already started intensive construction.So, after renaming of Stalin in 1924 there was erected a housing estate "Standard" for metallurgists and miners, and in 1932 adopted the first in the history of Donetsk master plan.However, it does not take into account the rapid increase in population due to the commissioning of new industrial enterprises.Therefore, in 1938, it finalized and included in the city limits about a dozen nearby villages, forming Kirov, Petrovsky and proletarian districts of Donetsk (Ukraine).
Thus, the beginning of WWII population of Stalino was 50,000 people, there operated 223 industrial enterprises, including Union subordination, which gave 7% of coal, 5% steel and 11% of coke on the total amount of these types of products produced inTHE USSR.
Donetsk during the occupation
In July and August 1941 in the city was formed guerrilla unit and the 383rd Division miner, who participated in his defense.But at the end of October in Stalino entered the Wehrmacht and the formation of the Italian army.Thus, like the rest of Ukraine, Donetsk was in occupation."The new authorities' first of all rushed to restore the mines and industries, products that were important to achieve victory in the war.At the same time, the Germans organized the ghetto for the Jewish community, which were later destroyed and thrown into the pit 4-4 bis and concentration camp for Soviet prisoners of war.Also operated death squads destined for the suppression of acts of disobedience occupation authorities.In particular, it is known that in the case of the murder of a German soldier was ordered to shoot down 100 from among the citizens, regardless of gender and age.However, such measures do not give that result, which the Nazis hoped, and Stalino successfully operated more than 20 guerrilla units and sabotage groups, inflicting great damage.
Liberation Stalino and postwar years
September 8, 1943 as part of operations in the Donbass, Soviet troops entered the city.Thus it was completed the occupation of Stalino, which lasted about 700 days.Almost immediately work began to re-establish the industry, which has always been proud of Donetsk.The history of the city in the coming years is full of interesting events, mainly related to the commissioning of new mines, industrial plants and residential neighborhoods.
In 1961 it was decided to change the name of the city.According to the decision of the Supreme Council of the USSR, he became known as the Donetsk, the title Seversky Donets River.After 17 years, the city already had more than a million inhabitants, it is the fifth largest in the country.Significant changes undergone and the map of Donetsk, where several new neighborhoods.
history of the city as part of an independent Ukraine
After the collapse of the USSR in 1991 in the Donetsk region for the first time talking about education autonomy.However, in Kiev adopted the Declaration of the rights of the peoples of Ukraine reassured speaking population of the region, forcing to forget about nationalist appeals, from time to time heard from Kiev.Thus, until 2014 the map of Donetsk and Donetsk region, or more precisely the boundaries of the Eastern Ukraine and Russia, remained the same as in the days of the USSR.
As part of the DNI
civil unrest after the events euromaidan in Kiev.The photo Donetsk, made from mid-March to the end of April 2014, you can see tens of thousands of protesters who participated in protests against the actions of the Kiev authorities and the appointment of new governors in the regions.In particular, April 6 residents seized the building of the Regional Council of People's Deputies, and the next day in the spotlight of the world media was Ukraine.Donetsk became the capital of the self-proclaimed People's Republic of Donetsk.In addition, the same day he was appointed the day of the referendum in which the people were to answer the question of self-determination of the DNI.As a result, the will of the majority of residents on May 12 in Donetsk, was proclaimed sovereign Donetsk People's Republic.This was followed by military operations involving heavy equipment and artillery.In particular, the city became a constantly shelled, its airport has become a scene of heavy fighting, and the map of Eastern Ukraine began to appear on television with marks indicating the place of clashes and militia fighters Donbass Ukrainian security officials.
today in the Eastern regions of Ukraine acts ceasefire, and it is hoped that residents of Donetsk and the whole DNI finally able to return to civilian life.