Catherine II, probably one of the most outstanding personalities in the history of the Russian state.On her favorite lover and personal life are still legendary.In this article we will try to sort out who is the son of Catherine 2 official and who is an illegitimate child.
the more so after the death of the Empress, they kept in touch.Who are these people?Read on and you will learn.
Since the All-Russian Empress was quite attractive and loving woman, it can be assumed that in a case she had enough "skeletons".
believed that the only official son of Catherine 2 - Paul.Who is the father of an illegitimate child, we will explain later, when we talk about Alexei Bobrinsk.
So Sophia of Anhalt-Tserbskaya, after having taken the name of the Orthodox Catherine, who appeared in Russia.The mother of the future Emperor Peter III, Elizabeth, the bride chose her son and as a result stopped on the candidacy of the Prussian princesses.
On arrival in a new country girl seriously engaged in studying a new culture for themselves.She perfectly masters the Russian language goes to the Orthodox faith.Everything would be fine, but not the future emperor had for Catherine the slightest sympathy.He saw it simply as a forced appendage, perennial plant with the mistresses.
Because of this "family happiness" Princess became interested in hunting, masquerades, correspondence with European philosophers and encyclopedists.Over time, and it appear personal favorites.
Of particular interest is the son of an official Catherine 2. Several years Empress could not get pregnant from her husband.And suddenly the boy is born.For more information on this situation will be discussed later.
Because of a failed marriage, and after a successful palace coup, the Empress was able to fully implement its commitment to "free love."Judging from the data, which results in one of the best of her biographers, Bartenev, Catherine II during life was twenty-three lover.
Among them are mentioned such statesmen as Potemkin and Orlov, Saltykov and Vasilchikov, Lansky and Zorich.Remarkably, only Grigory Potemkin became almost an unofficial her husband.Even though it has not been made public, but they had a secret wedding, until his death, Catherine called in the correspondence and diaries of his spouse, and his wife himself.They had a daughter, Elizabeth G. Temkin.
Thus, the Empress was very stormy and rich personal life.The most powerful in the state values were only two of her lover - Orlov and Potemkin.All of the following, as a rule, before they become the favorites of Catherine, were in a position of adjutant Grigory.
empress had several children, but all the sons she bore two.It is about them and will be discussed further.
son on the throne was succeeded by Empress Catherine the only official's son Peter 2 and 3. His name was Paul I Petrovich.
He was a long-awaited grandson to his grandmother, Elizabeth.The complexity of the situation at the court was the fact that after the marriage of the heir to the throne has passed ten years.Rumors began to circulate that Peter III was not able to conceive offspring, and can end the dynasty.
Elizabeth solved the problem of his intervention.He was summoned to the court of St. Petersburg the best surgeon who carried out the operation to remove phimosis.As a result, in the tenth year of the official marriage, Catherine gave birth to a second son.But for a long time there were rumors that the heir is not the father of the emperor and the crown princess's favorite - Sergei Saltykov.
However, the royal dynasty biographers insist that it was Peter III was the real parent of Pavel Petrovich.This version today decided to confirm the researchers.One of the proofs is its appearance.After all, the son of Catherine 2, Paul (photo portrait which is reproduced in the article) was a replica of the Emperor Peter III.
second clue was the Y-haploid genotype, characteristic of all the descendants of Nicholas I. This particular arrangement of the forms of a gene (alleles) at a specific location (locus) cytological maps of the chromosome.
Thus, today the line belonging to the genus of the future emperor of the Romanov proved.However, what happened in the following years with Pavel Petrovich?
Immediately after the birth of the son of Catherine and 2 Peter 3 has been separated from parents.His grandmother, Elizabeth, in the light of the political opposition, was seriously concerned about the fate of the heir to the throne.
Mother first saw his son only after forty days.Despite the fact that the birth of the heir to the dynasty protects against subsequent political upheavals, they still occur.But while Paul I was little, my grandmother took care of his education.
Neither Catherine nor Peter in the life of the emperor did not play any significant role.Immediately after birth the baby was surrounded by a specially selected entourage, which included nurses, teachers, tutors and the best teachers.Affirmation workers engaged personally Elizabeth.
main person responsible for the upbringing of the boy became a prominent diplomat Behteev.The man was obsessed with issues of drill and well-established standards of conduct.One of the features of the educational process was the publication of the newspaper in which it was told about all the pranks of the future emperor.
Behteev subsequently been replaced by Panin.New educator took very seriously for the training program.Being close to the prominent European Masons, Nikita Ivanovich had extensive acquaintance.Therefore, among the teachers Paul I was Metropolitan Platon, Poroshin grunge and Millikan.
noteworthy that any acquaintance and play with peers were limited.The emphasis was placed exclusively on education in the spirit of enlightenment.Tsarevich received the best education of his time, but the separation from parents and peers has led to irreversible consequences.
son of Catherine 2 Pavel Petrovich rose traumatized person.Subsequently, this will result in his eccentricities and obscene antics.One of them will lead to conspiracy against the emperor and his murder during a palace coup.
relationship with his mother
never officially son of Catherine 2 Pavel Petrovich did not love his mother.The Empress from the first day it is considered a child of an unloved man, whom she was to Peter III.
It was rumored that after the birth of her son, she wrote a will that upon reaching adulthood, she will give him the rule of the country.But the document, no one has ever seen.Unthinkable that fact is confirmed by the subsequent actions of the Empress.
Every year, the son of Catherine Paul 2 more estranged from the mother of public affairs.He picked the best teachers, condoned interest to a variety of sciences.The first council of war, which the empress invited him, took place in 1783, that is, when Pavel Petrovich was twenty-nine years.
At this meeting, and we denote the final break between them.
Before that Empress Catherine II indulged rumors about his birth by Saltykov.It also supports the opinion of the imbalance of the Crown Prince and cruelty.
Today it is difficult to judge, but the ordinary people who were dissatisfied with the policy of the Empress, were on the side of Pavel Petrovich.So, Emelyan Pugachev promised after the coup to give him power.The name sounded when the Crown Prince plague riot in Moscow.The rebels, led by exiled Benevskaya also swore the young emperor.
In recent years, the life of Catherine II was waiting for a formal wedding eldest son Paul Alexander.In this case, it would be able to hand over power to his grandson to bypass the unloved child.But after her death, the Secretary Bezborod'ko destroyed manifesto than Tsarevich saved from arrest and contributed to his ascension to the throne.For this he subsequently received the highest state rank of the Chancellor.
Catherine 2 Official son Paul Petrovich, after several years of travel in Western Europe settled in the estate of the late Count Grigory Orlov.Before that the crown prince had twice married.
His first wife was Wilhelmina of Hesse-Darmstadt (then Emperor Paul was nineteen years old).But after two and a half years, she died in childbirth and he picked up a new bride.
She was the Sofia-Wurttemberg Dorothea, daughter of the Duke of Württemberg.The candidacy for the Emperor himself chose the King of Prussia Frederick II.It is noteworthy that it comes from the same name as Catherine the Great, the mother of Paul Petrovich.
Thus, after one and a half years traveling couple newlyweds settled in Gatchina, the former estate of Count Orlov.It is interesting that, according to information from government securities and commercial estate documents, the Crown Prince and his wife constantly robbed servants and relatives.When huge salary for those days in the two hundred and fifty thousand rubles per annum 2 son of Catherine Paul 1 constantly in need of loans.
It Gatchina future emperor gets a "toy" army.It was a military formation, similar to the Mock shelves of Peter the Great.Although contemporaries and spoke very negatively against such passions of the Crown Prince, but the researchers of our time have the opposite opinion.
Based on the data about the teachings, the shelves are not just marching and parades.It was a small, but perfectly trained for the army at the time.For example, they were taught to reflect the marines, they were able to fight day and night.These and many other tactics are constantly rehearsed with them the son of Catherine 2.
however, was the illegitimate son of Catherine and 2. His name was Alex G..Subsequently, the boy was given the name of Bobrinsky, after the name of beaver (now the city of Bogoroditsk in Tula region).
2 Son of Catherine and Orlov, according to contemporaries, was very shy and quiet boy.At the court there were rumors about the "narrow-mindedness of his mind" because at thirteen years of his limited knowledge of French and German, as well as the beginnings of arithmetic and geography.
interesting case related to the birth of Alexei Bobrinsky.In December 1761, Empress Elizabeth dies and ascends to the throne of her son Peter III.The event leads to a final break between Catherine and her husband.The girl is sent to live in the opposite wing of the Winter Palace.
noteworthy, but its similar incident did not upset.At that time, she had a favorite Grigory Orlov.Four months later, in April 1762, the time came to give birth to a son by this lover.To attribute the paternity of Peter III was impossible.
was therefore undertaken an original turn of events.Valet Empress, Vasily Shkurin, sets fire to his house.As the Emperor loved to enjoy the fire, he, together with his entourage left the palace to enjoy the spectacle.At this time, Catherine gave birth to a second son from Grigory Orlov.
Before the coup to declare its existence was stupid and dangerous, so the boy immediately give foster faithful valet, which was built more attractive mansion on the site burned down.
Thus, the son of Catherine and Grigory Orlov 2 raised with children garderobmeystera Basil Shkurina later he will be granted the rank of valet.Up to twelve years Alex lived and studied with his sons.In 1770, together they go to four years in Leipzig.It specifically for these boys was established board.
In 1772 Alexei Bobrinsky two years are placed under the supervision of the Neapolitan army of Marshal Joseph de Ribas.Subsequently, the time spent with the illegitimate son of the Empress, the Spaniard will be counted, and it pops up in a prominent position in Russia.For example, it Deribas (as in the Russian manner, he began to write his name) played a major role in the creation of the port of Odessa.And after him was named the most famous street in the city.
At thirteen, Alex Bobrinsky returned to the Russian empire and falls in order to Betsky.At the same time, the boy complains estate in beaver for material support.
According guardian and teacher, son of Catherine 2 Alex was not much knowledge and the pursuit of science.He just wanted to please his mother.Like the boy was quiet, calm and accommodating.
Ivan Betskoy being a prominent figure in the sphere of education in St. Petersburg, quite strongly influenced not only by Alexei Bobrinsky training, but also on the promotion of Joseph de Ribas.
In twenty years, the youth completes the training package.As a reward, he gets a gold medal and elevated to the rank of lieutenant.
After this course the son of Catherine and Grigory Orlov 2 was dismissed and sent on a tour of Western Europe.I must say that here we have an example of how the Empress loved this young man and took care of him.
Alex G. Bobrinsky graduates with the best body goes on a journey under the supervision of scientists and the military.In Russia, they are accompanied by a naturalist Nikolai Ozeretskovsky, lexicographer, and member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg.The boys visited Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Yekaterinburg, Yaroslavl, Simbirsk, Ufa, Astrakhan, Taganrog, Kherson and Kiev.
Next in Warsaw it was attached to Colonel Alexei Bushuyev, who continued with alumni trip to Western Europe.There were visited Austria, Italy and Switzerland.Complete the program in the middle, in Paris.
The reason was that the son of Catherine 2 and Count Orlov became interested in gambling and girls.There is nothing supernatural about it for his age, but there was a misunderstanding of the fact that to send him money from the Empress (three thousand) lived all his companions.But finance is not enough and one Alexei Bobrinsky.
In view of the situation of graduates from France, was sent home, and the son of the Empress was allowed even to live in Europe.Here he is in debt, and became interested in wild life.
As a result, Catherine the Great ordered to take him to Russia.Count Vorontsov with minor difficulties still coped with the task, and Alexei Bobrinsky settled in Revel.This place was his kind of "house arrest."During a trip to Europe, he was promoted to the rank of second-captain (now First Lieutenant).
relations with Catherine II
Immediately after the birth of the son of Catherine 2 Bobrinsky enjoyed the location of the mother.He received quite a good education.Empress as far as possible to support and help throughout.But because of the lack of grip boys and commitment to service to care for it, like a porcelain figurine.
turning point was the failure of Alexei Bobrinsky while traveling in Western Europe.He sent out regularly interest in three thousand rubles (from the fund, which he founded for the Empress).Also, after the announcement in Russia of card debt has been transferred to seventy-five thousand.
But it did not help.The young man went down to the bottom again.At the request of Catherine the Great of him for a while he looked after Friedrich Grimm, a French writer and diplomat.After he gave up this work because of disobedience to the young man, the son of Catherine 2 and Count Orlov was sent to Russia.
Empress took this step, since the behavior of the boy spoils its reputation.
Apparently, being in Revel with a ban to leave the city, Alex Bobrinsky realized the depth of his misconduct.This is evident from the constant requests for pardon and permission to move to the capital.The result was a dismissal of his military forces with the rank of brigadier.
At thirty-two years, the Empress allowed his son to buy a castle in Livonia, where two years later he married Baroness Urgyen-Sternberg.Because wedding Alexei Bobrinsky allowed a few days to come to the capital to Catherine II looked bride.
Then he went back to his castle Ober-Palen, where he lived until the death of the mother.
relationship with Paul I
Oddly enough, but Alexei Bobrinsky, son of Catherine 2, has the full support and concern from the Emperor Paul I. His stepbrother freed him from house arrest, has increased over time to major general.