chemical element of magnesium - the twelfth in the periodic table.It belongs to the second group and the third period.It is included in the collection of alkaline earth metals.The science that studies these elements - chemistry.Periodic table, upon which you can study the science shows us that the protons and neutrons in an atom of magnesium contained by twelve.This can be identified by serial number (it is equal to the number of protons and electrons is much, if it is a neutral atom, ion instead).
chemical characteristics of magnesium is also studying chemistry.Periodic Table is also necessary to consider them, as it shows us the valence of the element (in this case it is two).It depends on the group to which the atom belongs.In addition, it can help to know that the molar mass of magnesium is equal to twenty-four.That is, one mole of metal weighs twenty four grams.The formula of magnesium is very simple - it does not consist of molecules and atoms combined crystal lattice.
Characteristics of magnesium in terms of physics
Like all metals except mercury, the compound has a solid aggregate state under normal conditions.It has light-gray color with a peculiar luster.This metal has a relatively high strength.This physical characteristic of magnesium does not end there.Consider melting and boiling points.First equals six hundred and fifty degrees Celsius, the second of thousand ninety degrees Celsius.It can be concluded that it is quite a low melting metal.In addition, it is very easy: its density - 1.7 g / cm3.
Knowing the physical characteristics of the substance, you can go to the second part of his characteristics.This metal has a mean activity level.It can be seen from the electrochemical series of metals - it is more passive, the right to stay.Magnesium is one of the first on the left.Consider the order, what substances he reacts and how it happens.
These include those whose molecules consist of a single chemical element.This oxygen and fisfor and sulfur, and many others.First, consider the interaction with oxygenic.It is called burning.This produces an oxide of the metal.If two moles of magnesium to burn, while spending one mole of oxygen, we get two moles of oxide.The equation of this reaction is written as follows: 2Mg + O2 = 2MgO.In addition, when magnesium combustion in the open air and its nitride formed as parallel active metal reacts with nitrogen in the atmosphere.
When burning spent three moles of magnesium per mole of nitrogen, and the result is one mole of the metal nitride.The equation of this kind of chemical interaction can be written thus: 3Mg + N2 = Mg3N2.
addition, magnesium is capable of reacting with other simple substance such as halogens.Interaction with them occurs only when the component heating to very high temperatures.In this case there is an addition reaction.By halogen include such simple compounds: chloro, iodo, bromo, fluoro.And the reactions are called appropriately: chlorination, iodination, bromination, fluorination.As it was already possible to guess the result of such interactions can receive chloride, iodide, bromide, magnesium fluoride.For example, if we take one mole of magnesium and the same iodine obtain one mole of metal iodide.To express this chemical reaction may be using the following equation: Mg + I2 = MgI2.The same principle is carried out and chlorination.That is the equation of the reaction: Mg + Cl2 = MgCl2.
Additionally, metals, including magnesium, are reacted with phosphorus and sulfur.In the first case it is possible to receive the phosphide in the second - sulfide (not to be confused with phosphates and sulfates!).If we take three moles of magnesium, added to it two moles of phosphorus and heated to the desired temperature, produces one mole of the metal phosphide.The equation of the chemical reaction is as follows: 3Mg + 2P = Mg3P2.Similarly, if the mix of magnesium and sulfur into the same molar proportions and conditions necessary to create a high temperature to yield a metal sulphide present.The equation of this chemical interaction can be written as: Mg + S = MgS.Here we examined the reaction of the metal with other simple substances.But chemical characteristics of magnesium does not end there.
reactions with complex compounds
These substances include water, salts, acids.Since different groups of chemicals metals react differently.Consider everything in order.
Magnesium and water
The interaction of the metal with the most common in the world chemical compound oxide is formed and hydrogen gas with a pungent unpleasant odor.To carry out this kind of reaction components can also be heated.If mix by one mole of magnesium and water, we obtain for the same number of oxide and hydrogen.Reaction equation is written as follows: Mg + H2O = MgO + H2.
interaction with acids
Like other reactive metals, magnesium is able to displace atoms of Hydrogen from their compounds.Such processes are called substitution reactions.In such cases, there is a replacement with metal atoms of Hydrogen atoms and forming salts consisting of magnesium (or other element) and acid sludge.For example, if we take one mole of magnesium and adding it to the hydrochloric acid in an amount of two moles of formed one mole of the metal chloride and the same amount of hydrogen.Reaction equation would look like this: Mg + 2HCl = MgCl2 + H2.
interaction with salts
As of acid salts are formed, we are told, but the characteristics of magnesium in terms of chemistry and involves consideration of its reaction with salts.In this case, the reaction can only occur when the metal part of the salt is less active than magnesium.For example, if we take one mole of magnesium sulfate and copper sulfate obtain the metal in question and the pure copper in equal molar ratio.The equation of this type of reaction can be written as follows: Mg + CuSO4 = MgSO4 + Cu.There appear regenerative properties of magnesium.
use of this metal
Due to the fact that it is in many ways superior to aluminum - easier it about three times, but twice as strong as it was widespread across industries.This primarily aircraft.Here magnesium-based alloys occupy the first place in popularity among the materials used.In addition, it is used in the chemical industry as reducing agent for obtaining certain metals from their compounds.Due to the fact that the combustion of magnesium forms a very powerful flash, it is used in the defense industry for the manufacture of flares, ammunition and stun others.
mainly raw material for this is the chloride of the metal.This is done by electrolysis.
Qualitative reaction of metal cations
This is a special procedure designed to determine the presence of ions of a substance.To test for the presence of a solution of magnesium compounds can be added thereto, or potassium carbonate solution.As a result, a white precipitate which easily dissolves in acid.
Where this metal found in nature?
This chemical element is quite common in nature.The crust is almost two percent is made up of the metal.It is found in the composition of many minerals such as carnallite, magnesite, dolomite, talc, asbestos.The formula of the first mineral looks like: KCl • MgCl2 • 6H2O.It looks like a bluish crystals, pale pink, pale red, pale yellow or clear color.Magnesite - is magnesium carbonate, its chemical formula - MgCO3.It has a white color, but depending on the impurities can be gray, brown or yellow.Dolomite has the following chemical formula: MgCO3 • CaCO3.It is yellowish-gray or ocher mineral with a glassy luster.
talc and asbestos have a more complex formula: 3MgO • 4SiO2 • H2O and 3MgO • 2SiO2 • 2H2O respectively.Due to its high heat resistance, they are widely used in industry.In addition, magnesium is included in the chemical composition of the cell structure and many organic substances.This we will consider in more detail.
role of magnesium for the body
This chemical element essential for both plant and animal creatures.Magnesium plant for the body simply vital.Just as iron is hemoglobin-based, for the desired life of the animals, since magnesium is a major component of chlorophyll, without which a plant can not exist.This pigment is involved in the process of photosynthesis in which the leaves are synthesized from inorganic nutrients.Magnesium for the body of animals is also very necessary.Mass fraction of trace elements in a cage - 0.02-0.03%.Despite the fact that there is so little, it performs a very important function.Thanks to him, supported by the structure of these organelles like mitochondria, responsible for cellular respiration and synthesis of energy, and ribosomes that produce proteins necessary for life.Furthermore, it is included in the chemical composition of many enzymes, which are necessary for intracellular metabolism and DNA synthesis.
for the whole body magnesium is needed to participate in the exchange of glucose, lipids and some amino acids.Also, with this trace element can be transmitted to a nerve signal.In addition to the above, a sufficient content of magnesium in the body reduces the risk of heart attacks, heart attacks and strokes.
symptoms of high and low content in the human body
Lack of magnesium in the body is manifested by such basic features as high blood pressure, fatigue and low performance, irritability and poor sleep, memory loss, frequent dizziness.There may also be nausea, cramps, trembling fingers, confusion - these are signs of a very low level of revenue from the food of the trace element.Lack of magnesium in the body leads to frequent respiratory diseases, disorders of the cardiovascular system, as well as Type II diabetes.Next, consider the magnesium content of the products.To avoid the defect need to know what foods rich in the chemical element data.It is necessary to take into consideration the fact that many of these symptoms may occur and when the opposite case - an excess of magnesium in the body, as well as the lack of trace elements such as potassium and sodium.Therefore, it is important to carefully reconsider their diet and understand the nature of the problem, it is best to do this with the help of a registered dietitian.
magnesium content in products
As mentioned above, this element is the main component of chlorophyll.So you can guess that a large amount thereof is contained in the green: it is celery, dill, parsley, cauliflower and cabbage, lettuce, and so on. D. It is also a lot of grains, especially buckwheat and millet, and even oatmeal and barley.In addition, nuts are rich in trace element data: this cashews, and walnuts, and peanuts, and hazelnuts, and almonds.Also, a large amount of the metal contained in legumes, such as beans and peas.A lot of it is contained in the composition of algae, for example in the seaweed.If the use of these products takes place in the normal amount, then your body will not be lacking in discussed in this article metal.If you can not regularly eat foods listed above, it is best to buy nutritional supplements which include this trace element.But before that it is necessary to consult with your doctor.
Magnesium - one of the most important metals in the world.It is widely used in many industries - from chemicals to aerospace and the military.Moreover, it is very important from a biological standpoint.Without it the existence of any plant or animal organisms.Due to this chemical element, the process of giving life all over the planet - photosynthesis.