Granite (rock): characteristics and properties.

from the Latin "granite" is translated as "grain".It is a granular massive volcanic rock, which was formed in the process of a gradual cooling and solidification of magma at a sufficient depth.In addition, perhaps its origin during metamorphism, in other words, when granitisation different breeds.It is part of the array of granite credited with magmatic, metamorphic and mixed origin.Granite - a rock, the most common in the earth's crust.

Given its characteristics, we can say that this is a very durable material, whereby the construction it is very common.One of the most important characteristics of the breed is considered to be its high strength.

Quality

  1. strength. Granite - rock that is different resistance to abrasion, compression and friction.It is a very dense rock (compressive strength is its 90-250 MPa).
  2. durability. grained granite begins to show signs of failure after 500 years, thus it is also called "eternal" stone.
  3. Resistant to acids and atmospheric phenomena. Granite - this is the
    best stone for exterior decoration of houses.
  4. Sustainability. natural radiation level of the basic amount of granites corresponds to the first class.In other words, they radiation safety, and therefore suitable for all types of construction.
  5. Waterproof. It is also an excellent feature granite.Moisture he almost does not absorb.That is why the stone suitable for cladding of buildings, embankments, etc..
  6. richness of textures. Unpolished rough stone absorbing light and polished to a shine marvelous, showing the world the light game inclusions of mica - decorative possibilities of this mineral can translate complex ideas designers.
  7. huge color palette.The most common considered gray mineral, though there are also red granite, orange, pink, blue-green, blue-gray.
  8. compatibility with other materials. It goes well with metal, wood, ceramics and other materials that are used in today's construction industry.He will be able to "fit" in the interior of each - from ultra-modern to classic.

Granites size grains are divided into:

  • fine-grained;
  • medium-grained;
  • coarse.

If we look at the fine-grained stone, granite is characteristic of this type will be very different from the rest.This group is opposed to mechanical stress much better.In operation, it wears more evenly, with less heat cracks, resistant to weathering.

This group is the most expensive and high-quality.It features resistance to damage, water resistance and high strength.Coarse-grained samples are characterized by a lack of fire resistance.When heated above 600˚S they begin to crack and expand.Because of what sometimes in homes after the fires can often be seen cracked granite stairs and steps.

Despite the excellent density and strength, stone is easy to process: polished, polished and cut.It has excellent thermal conductivity, because of what is often applied to heaters.

Of course, the above characteristics are considered to be the advantages of this material.But granite stone has its drawbacks.The main disadvantage is considered his great weight, because of which he is one of the toughest finishing materials.This feature should be taken into account when creating construction projects.

structural and chemical composition

Granite - rock that has a granular crystal structure.Enriched alkalis, rich in silica, while the iron, magnesium and calcium containing fewer.

in its mineral composition mean values:

  • feldspars - 60-65%;
  • quartz - 25-30%;
  • dark-colored minerals - 5.10%.

color breed in the first place depends on the type of feldspar present in the composition.Most often, its color is gray with various shades of red, pink, gray, blue, orange, sometimes bluish-green.

In addition, the formation of dark-colored hue affected components.These elements often breed impart a dark color, usually green.Yantsevsky example is the granite.

But mostly quartz is colorless, therefore, the nature of the color is not affected.This sometimes can be seen with a black mineral quartz, at least - purplish-pink.It is considered rare with blue quartz minerals.The most decorative features - from light gray fine-grained samples with a blue tint.In addition, demand is very blue-green and red granite.

Appearance

As mentioned above, a mineral widely used in construction.This is easily explained.Granite - a sedimentary rock that is perfectly polished.The obtained mirror surface is preserved for a long time in the case of using the material in the outer wall.

also a stone well treated, easily acquires different forms.Relief texture of granite surface emphasizes the monumental building, gives an interesting decorative effect of light and shade games.

However, some types of decorative stone texture is obtained only after the heat treatment.This applies mostly to light-gray shades that are after processing almost sugar-white.

deposits

basic form of deposition are considered batholiths.They represent a large amount of an area of ​​several hectares.The most common breed lies in the form of stocks, dykes and the rest of the intrusive bodies.Sometimes mineral forms several tabular bodies alternating with sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.

If we talk about the field of granite, the latter is found on each of the continents.Basically it comes to the surface in those areas, which were made up of ancient rocks, where, because of erosion-denudation processes occurred destruction of overburden.

In the United States, this breed is found in the north of the country, along the Atlantic coast, in the mountains of the Black Hills and the heart of the Ozark Plateau.Stone is mined in Georgia, Wisconsin, South Dakota and Vermont.

Also, it is common in our country.The former Soviet Union operated 200 fields.The largest of them: Mokryanskoe, Malokohnovskoe, Mikashevichi.

on the territory of Russia granite is the most common in the Karelian-Kola region in Eastern Siberia, in the Urals, the Far East and the Caucasus.Today there are about fifty fields, in which the piece is extracted mineral.Granite gravel and rubble mined in the Lake Ladoga, Onega, the Arkhangelsk and Voronezh regions, on the Karelian Isthmus, in the Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk regions, the Khabarovsk Krai and Primorye in the Eastern Trans-Baikal.Excellent decorative characteristics differ Rapakivi mined in the north-west of the country, moreover, valued and amazanitovye kinds of Trans-Baikal and Ilmen mountains.Many fields do not work all the time, mostly on gravel and rubble.In them, as required, extract blocks of granite, which is made of veneer.

There are several types of granite, they will be discussed in the article below.

gabbro-diabase

This is a solid granite mountain uniform black color with small specks of gray.Excellent accumulates and then gives the heat evenly throughout the mass is heated, the longest species does not lose quality polishing and paint properties.

This stone building materials is considered to be 1st class.It does not emit any harmful impurities, it is not radioactive.This Karelian gabbro-diabase - a unique rock formation, which has no analogues in other regions of our country.

mineral used to produce road block stone (mosaic block, paving blocks, curbs), for the manufacture of interior and various ritual products, precision machinery, for landscape design as a ground stone for construction.Is ideal for interior decoration and the facade of buildings, there is a part on the gravel and bottles, used in stoves for saunas and baths.

In the world of all, there are 3 main areas of block stone extraction:

  • Ukrainian gabbro-diabase , who as inferior Karelian, but cheaper by almost half.It contains a huge number of impurities of iron, and this impairs the quality of finished products, thus inflicted on a stone image quickly fades.
  • Australian gabbro-diabase , Karelian similar in quality, though it was much more expensive.
  • Karelian gabbro-diabase , which has a black color, low abrasion, high decorative properties, durability, frost resistance, long keeps drawing inflicted on him.

Based on the ratio of quality and price, on the Karelian gabbro-diabase generally higher demand.At the same time he is steadily increasing every year.The popularity of the use of Karelian mineral due to its durability and strength.This stone is almost not subject to the negative effects of the environment.It is much longer retains the properties of marble, and the very first signs of destruction are manifested only in a hundred years.

"Shanxi Black" (Chinese granite)

Chinese Granite - rock black, is considered one of the best in the world.Harvest it in the north of China, in the province of Shanxi.Its main advantage - a rich and deep blacks with few inclusions.It is used for facades, interior decoration, manufacturing of products for different purposes, monuments and monuments.

Shoksha

This crimson granite, the price of which is quite accessible - about 10 000 rub. / T produced in the Republic of Karelia.It is characterized by high strength and durability.Experts claim that products made of it for over 600 years will not lose its shape.He decorated mausoleums, palaces and monuments.The inscriptions and engraved portrait on Shoksha contrasting look.

«Kapustinsky" granite

This unevenness and coarse, pinkish-red, bright, massive, granite vysokodekorativny, reviews which talk about his incredible beauty.Field of use suitable for the manufacture of pedestals, as well as other architectural structures, finishing elements for structures and buildings in places where high architectural expressiveness.Used in finishing the temple of Memory, located on the Poklonnaya Gora, Moscow's Manezh Square.The field is in the Kirov region, Ukraine.

Labradorite

It is a natural stone, which is a mountainous granular crystalline rock.Labradorite appear in the depths of magma.Basically they consist of plagioclase feldspar which is.The structure of crystalline minerals.It is subdivided into medium-grained and coarse-grained rocks.

labradorite - a form of anorthosite.The name they got from their initial deposit - the so called Peninsula in Canada.Today, production of natural stone is happening in other countries, including Ukraine and Finland.In Russia, there are also large deposits.The first mineral structures were found in the Kievan Rus' - then this granite was used exclusively as a facing stone, then they began to decorate monumental buildings.

Basically this granite gray or black.Mafic minerals just give a nice dark shade of stone.The main properties of labradorite is their frost resistance and high strength.Therefore, these stones are often used for exterior decoration of buildings.

In addition, granite distinguished by the structural and textural properties.

This porphyritic granite Ural contains elongated or isometric inclusions, which are different from the bulk of the size (can reach 10 centimeters).Usually presented orthoclase, quartz and microcline.

pegmatoid

This granitic rock with a uniform characteristic grit.The size of inclusions of quartz and feldspar - about 3 centimeters.

Finnish granite

This granite - igneous rock with characteristic rounded by numerous patches of orthoclase red hue of up to five centimeters, surrounded by a border of blue-green or gray oligoclase.The bulk of the role it performs aggregate grains of orthoclase, plagioclase, hornblende, quartz and biotite.

gneissose

This Ural is uniformly fine-grained granite stone with a typical conventional coarse-grain parallel to the orientation of hornblende or the mica flakes.

pegmatite granite

One of the most common species is considered to be pegmatite granite composed of muscovite, quartz and orthoclase.A typical representative of this species - the so-called work of granite, which grows in small feldspar quartz wedge formations fine form.

Leznikovsky granite

special strength and popularity of different red and pink and red granite leznikovsky, got its name by the name of its field.It should be noted that the so called many kinds of granite.For example, a red stone - Mezhdurechensk Simonov, tokovsky, Emelyanovsky, Kapustinsky.But there is a gray granite korninsky, Pokostivske, zhezhelevsky, Sophia.

Rapakivi

Another one interesting variety of the mineral is rapakivi.It is a porphyry education with great content ovoids.

White Granite

also found white granite.What rock it can not answer all at once.This concept is more a collective, as white as the snow-white stones are called, and other minerals light shades.The color can vary from pearly gray to light green.

Application

In today's construction of granite is so widely used that it can be called a truly versatile material.

Interior details

eaves, window sills, rails, baseboards, countertops, bar tops, coffee tables, columns, balusters - high strength stone will allow you to order these products from granite, and they will remain intact for many years.

Stairs, floors

granite - a material with a low degree of abrasion.If your apartment stairs will take a year a million people, wipe it off stage, they will be able to a maximum of 0.12 mm.

interior and exterior decoration

Granite - it's very ergonomic material which can provide you with quite a comfortable stay in the building.

Landscaping

Rockery, alpine slide, miniature ponds, Japanese gardens, made of granite, your site will give originality and naturalness.

curbs, paving stones for the bridge, steps

Granite is used with success in places that require a huge "endurance."Mineral resistant to chemical contamination, mechanical stress and temperature changes, because its properties do not change over many cycles of thawing and freezing.

Facing embankments

Granite almost does not absorb moisture and, therefore, in the pores of the stone temperature is lowered from the frozen water is formed inside the additional pressure, which can lead to the destruction of rocks and cracks.

Granite cobbles

The use of this stone paving thousands of years.According to the famous ancient Roman paved roads, and today you can walk;Street Paving stones can be found in the old part of every European capital;in today's world, when the processing of granite from the masters does not cause any difficulty, stone roads also gradually replacing concrete and asphalt.