Such a device, like a microscope, before and in the world today is very popular.Each of us from school days remembers that this is an optical device that increases the objects in the hundreds or even thousands of times.In biology class we looked through the eyepiece on the cells of the onion and the film surprised ingenious and complexity of such a device.Today, we try to understand who invented the microscope, since the exact answer to this question yet.
How did the first microscope
Optical properties of curved surfaces were discovered in 300-s BC.Euclid in his treatises described the research, explaining the refraction and reflection of light, resulting in an increase in visual things happened.Ptolemy in his work "Optics" to describe the characteristics of flammable glass.However, while all of these properties were not used.Only a few centuries were used in practice.Hans Janssen and his son Zacharias built in 1550, the very first model of the device: one tube put two lenses, thus obtaining an increase fifty times.This is one answer to the question of who invented a primitive microscope.And in 1610, Galileo discovered that pushing the telescope, they are invented, it is also possible to increase small objects.It was this scholar and was regarded as those who invented the first microscope consisting of negative and positive lenses.After that date, research in this area began to evolve rapidly.
17th century - a time of great discoveries
In this century there was a real technological revolution, which became the foundation of most modern sciences: biology, medicine, physics, mathematics.There have been tremendous discoveries and great inventions.Just while microscopes considerably improve and become an important part of every researcher.But no one really did not say who invented the microscope, who consider him the creator.According to one view, the creator of the reporting unit is A. Kircher, in 1646 described the device as "a flea glass."What does it consist of?It was a magnifying glass, fixed at the base of copper, which held the stage.At the bottom was placed a flat mirror to reflect light and illuminate the subject.With screws could move the magnifying glass and image adjustments.Such a device has become the prototype of a modern light microscope.
C. Huygens eyepiece system and further development of the device
creation of this system was a big step in the development of microscopes.It was possible to obtain a colorless image that has allowed to increase the clarity of subjects.K. Drebel scientist in the early 17th century, made a compound microscope consisting of two lenses: the first addressed to the subject, the second - to the eye of the researcher.In the first lenticular glass used to give an inverted enlarged image.Robert Hooke in 1661 perfected the device, adding another lens.This type became the most popular and most models of microscopes until the middle of the 18th century.Another inventor - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek - also considered those who invented the microscope.The reason - his enormous contribution to the development of the reporting unit.In his spare time, he polished the lenses.Despite the fact that they were relatively small, the increase gave striking - 350-400 times.
Influence on microbiology microscope
Using your lens Leeuwenhoek created his own unit and began to study various objects.So, after only one small spherical lens he saw a drop of dirty water are many living creatures the smallest size.It was concluded that there was some microscopic life.Leeuwenhoek took up its study, which marked the beginning of another new science - microbiology.In 1861 the scientist presented his discovery of the Royal Society and received the title of inventor of the microscope and the greatest explorers.It turns out that he - the one who invented the microscope.By now described devices have undergone great changes.There models that do not use light to produce an image, and the flow of electrons, and occasionally a laser.For this use, and computer calculations.The microscope has become one of the most important instruments in the study of the natural sciences, it is used in chemistry and biology, and physics.
If you wonder about who invented the electron microscope, the correct answer is: Physics of the University of Sheffield.At the heart of the old device - the method of transmission microscopy, enabling you to get the resolution of images, limited only by the wavelength of the electron.The design of the transmission device, researchers abandoned the magnetic lenses, since they generally and lower the resolution.Through the pattern of diffraction of waves passed and by computer analysis of the image.This e ptihografiya.With a slight modification of the structure and a few other ways to form the final image, scientists were able to increase the resolution five times on an existing device.
operating principle of an electron microscope
now is not so important who invented the first microscope.Now run the show completely different, much more powerful devices, including electronic.According to the principle of work are similar to light.Only in them, instead of the luminous flux through the sample, electrons pass, and magnets are used instead of glass linz.No is blurred due to aberrations inherent magnetic lenses.Scientists have found a way to restore the image.This allowed the magnets removed from the circuit and thus distortion.
Who invented the light microscope?A bit of history
What optical microscope?This laboratory system designed to produce images of small objects in an enlarged form for the purpose of study, review and practical application.We began our article with the history of microscope, but now look at the issue from the other side.Currently, such a device is necessary not only to doctors and biologists.Without it, it is impossible to introduce modern technology with high current requirements to control the assembly and quality of products.
tell you about one achievement.In 2006, German scientists Mariano Bossi and Stefan Hell developed nanoscope - heavy duty optical microscope, which allows you to explore the objects supermalenkogo size of 10 nm as well as to receive 3D-images of the highest quality.
Briefly about the possibilities of modern devices
We are a little understood the question of who invented the first microscope.Now, just a couple of words about the capabilities of modern devices.In 2010, an Israeli Yeshiva University, came the news that the scientists were able to observe how cells move within the individual molecules.At the same time, German researchers have captured molecular transformations in the course of chemical reactions.And a year earlier in the Kharkiv PTI got a clear image of a single atom.It should also be noted that at the present time are catching up with the electronic light microscopes in their capabilities.