almost everyone knows the definition of electric current as the directional movement of charged particles.However, the fact that the origin and movement of it in a variety of environments quite different from each other.In particular, the electric current in liquids has several other properties than the ordered motion of charged particles.It is about the same metallic conductors.
main difference is that the current in the liquid - this movement of charged ions, i.e. atoms or molecules, which for some reason lost or gained electrons.At the same time one of the indicators of this movement is to change the properties of the material through which ions pass data.Based on the definition of electric current, we can assume that during the decomposition of the negatively charged ions will move towards the positive power source, and positive, on the contrary, to negative.
process of decomposition of molecules of the solution into positive and negative ions received in the name of science, of electrolytic dissociation.Thus, an electric current is caused by liquids that, in contrast to the metallic conductor, composition changes and chemical properties of these fluids, resulting in the process of moving ions.
electric current in liquids, its origin, quantitative and qualitative characteristics were one of the main problems, the study of which has long been engaged in the famous physicist Michael Faraday.In particular, with the help of numerous experiments he was able to prove that the mass of electrolytic material depends on the amount of electricity and the time during which the electrolysis is carried out.From any other reason, except kind of substance, this does not depend on the mass.
In addition, studying the current in liquids, Faraday experimentally found that for the isolation of one kilogram of any substance in the electrolysis must be the same number of electric charges.This amount is equal to 9,65 • October 7 to., Obtained the name of Faraday.
Unlike metallic conductors, electric current in liquids is surrounded by water molecules, which significantly impede the movement of ions of the substance.In this regard, any electrolyte may be formed only a small current voltage.At the same time, if the temperature of the solution increases, its conductivity increases, and the electric field increases.
Electrolysis has another interesting property.The fact is that the probability of decay of a particular molecule into positive and negative ions is higher, the greater the number of molecules of the solvent and the substance itself.At the same time, at some point comes ion supersaturation of the solution, after which the conductivity of the solution begins to decline.Thus, the most severe electrolytic dissociation will take place in a solution where the ion concentration is extremely low, however, the electric current in such solutions is very low.
The electrolysis process is widely used in various industrial production, related to the electrochemical reactions.Among the most important of them include preparation of metal by electrolyte, electrolysis salts containing chlorine and its derivatives, redox reactions required for such substances as hydrogen, polishing surfaces electroplating.For example, many enterprises of mechanical engineering and instrument is very common method of refining, which is a preparation of metal without any unwanted impurities.