Ural metallurgical base is the largest in the country.Most of the Russian steel and iron mills smelted it in the region.Built in the area and a lot of companies, specializing in the production of nickel, zinc, copper and so on. D. The geographical position of the Ural metallurgical base is considered to be quite user-friendly and cost-effective.Thanks largely to this factor are manufactured products are relatively low cost.
Before turning to the features of the development of this industry in the Urals revealed that it is a country-wide.Ferrous metallurgy enterprises in Russia are engaged:
- extraction of ore raw materials (iron, manganese and chromium);
- concomitant extraction of raw materials (coal, limestone, clay);
- release of ferrous metals (iron, steel, rolled products);
- iron and steel pipes;
- release of coke and coke oven gas;
- processing of secondary metals.
enterprises engaged in production of non-ferrous metals copper, nickel, zinc and so on. D. The value of this sub-sector in the economy is sufficiently large.
General characteristics of Russian metallurgical bases
Most plants of this industry are located in Siberia, the Urals and Central regions of the country.On placing the steel industry mainly affects such factors as the availability of fuel and raw materials.Unfortunately, the territorial space of deposits of coal and ore rarely coincide.Therefore, plants are usually built far away from the base of raw materials or fuel, as well as between them.
The following table provides a brief comparative characteristic of Russian metallurgical bases.
have large deposits (Kursk Magnetic Anomaly)
Relatively large reserves
Enterprisesexperience some shortages of raw materials and forced to seek opportunities to develop new fields
Imported (Donetsk, Kuznetsk)
have their (Kuznetsk coal basin)
Basically the complete cycle (producing steel, rolled steel and cast iron)
built many enterprises as a full cycle and limiting metallurgy (produce only steel and rolled)
These are the main indicators characterizing the Russian steel base.Ural metallurgical base is the largest of all.Siberian - is under development.
largest ironworks in the Urals
Most plants of this region relates to the production of a full cycle.Among the largest possible to allocate Magnitogorsk, Novotroitsk, Chelyabinsk and Nizhny Tagil.These four plants give 80% of the total area of iron and 70% steel.There are in the region and other plants, are smaller: in Serov, Chusovoy, Beloretsk, Alapaevke and so on. D. The largest iron ore deposits in the Urals is Kachkanarskoye.The second most important is considered the Orsk-Khalilov.It produces almost all Russian chromites.
geographical position of the Ural metallurgical base: features
is this area in close proximity to a rich fuel Siberia and Kazakhstan, as well as having a significant scientific and technical potential of the European part of Russia.Of course, this neighborhood can not affect the cost of the final product.
there in the territorial position of the base, and another plus.Ural Mountains - the very old.There are millions of years ago, and by now almost destroyed.Therefore, minerals are deposited on the surface of virtually and in most cases can be mined by open method.
to adverse factors include the lack of regional reserves of coking coal.However, the geographical position of the Ural metallurgical base is such that simply bring it and the neighboring regions.In most cases, coking coal purchased in Kazakhstan.Iron ore imported from partial areas of the Kursk magnetic anomaly.
Ural metallurgical base represented a fairly large number of enterprises.Magnitogorsk plant is not only the largest in Russia, but also in Europe.It was built in the 30s of the last century.Production facilities of the Magnitogorsk plant occupies a total of 7,000 hectares.This company produces 20% of the total sold in the Russian market of products and has a full cycle.The first stage of production at the plant is the extraction of ores, and the last - deep processing of ferrous metals.About 40% of all products manufactured by this company are exported.
Novotroitskaya "Ural Steel»
This plant is part of the holding "Metalloinvest" and is one of the nation's largest producers of round billets, strips and bridge.It is located in the Orenburg region, and is the main enterprise of Novotroitsk.Its old name - Orsk-Khalilov Metallurgical Plant.It was built not so long ago - in the middle of the last century.
Features economic and geographical situation of the Ural metallurgical base such that the portion of the fuel advantageous to buy in Kazakhstan.In particular, it concerns the "Ural Steel".Novotroitsk Plant is located right on the border with this country.During the collapse of the Soviet Union, when economic relations with the former republics broke, the company has experienced considerable difficulties.Now the situation has improved somewhat in the plant.
Among other things, this company produces:
- iron and foundry pig;
- plates and bars;
- cinder blocks;
- ammonium sulfate.
Part of the production is exported.
Nizhny Tagil plant
This is one of the oldest metallurgical enterprises of the country.Its construction began in 1720.Ural metallurgical base, whose geographical position at that time was not as favorable as they are now, then just beginning to emerge.
first smelting plant at Nizhny Tagil held in 1725.The main types of products manufactured by them today are:
- wheels for trains;
- channel, angle, I-beams and so on. D.
ferrous metallurgy enterprises in this group also have a significant impact on the economy of the region and the country as a whole.Ural metallurgical base - the largest supplier of non-ferrous metals.In this region there are plants that produce zinc, copper, aluminum, nickel.
The largest enterprises are:
- OK "Rusal";
- Upper Salda Association;
- of "Ufaleynickel";
- Revda GCM, etc..
Problems and Prospects of
geographical position of the Ural metallurgical base sufficiently profitable.Unfortunately, despite the number of recent reforms it remains Ural region, exporting mainly unprocessed products only.The most promising direction in the development of the region's industry analysts see further cooperation metallurgical complex of the Ural and fuel-energetic base of Siberia.Particularly effective cooperation could be plants in the region with the enterprises of the Republic of Komi.
main direction of development, in fact, the plant should be the intensification of production.Ural economic and geographical area has one feature - almost all enterprises of metallurgical industry giants here are very difficult to give in conversion and modernization.Another problem of the large plants in the region is considered to be what they are slow to respond to market changes.
soon Ural metallurgical base, whose geographical position is quite advantageous in respect of the territorial structure will remain the same.However, to date the government said the main purpose is modernization of production in the area.