Centralization and decentralization

centralization and decentralization are two systems of government.Within the first concept stipulates that governmental authority is involved in the general regulation of public life.At the same time it seeks to direct the activities of the territorial authorities, subordinating his immediate influence many or all aspects of the territorial life.Decentralization of management involves delineation activities of local and state authorities.This concept has a certain kinship with the term "self-governance", however, is not identical with it.Decentralization - a broader concept, since that provides full autonomy for the regions, federal system.This requires mandatory self-reliance on a single legislature.At the same time such a phenomenon is only allowed in one part of the state, for one or more of its territories.

Initially, centralization and decentralization have different development and distribution in the territory.If insufficient quantities of Railways consistent increase state power, followed by the distribution of its impact on all aspects of life in the country was impossible.At the same time it sought a certain segment of the population, representing the ruling circles.In the formation of a unified regulatory system power is seen a means of political and economic exploitation of the masses.

centralization and decentralization were apart in ancient despotic states.Thus, the power to appoint the individual in the province of princes (rulers), demanded the troops and money from them.This exercise control over the activities of their government could not.The rulers of the same in their areas had almost complete autonomy.

centralization and decentralization in the Roman Empire were somewhat balanced.Despite the autocratic system and the fact that the provinces were formed to maintain a single state power, the state recognized government in cities and provinces.

After the fall of the Roman Empire in Europe (with the exception of Byzantium), the state system did not provide for centralization.It was typical of many of the time.When feudal device as there were no conditions for the formation of the central nervous system.At the same time it aspires to develop the royal power.For example, in France it has reached the greatest success.Subsequently, the principles of the French monarchy were the basis of the device of the republic.But the republican political system used in France and the principle of sovereignty.However, the management authority under the control of a single state authority.This municipality is developed quite weak.

consistent implementation of centralization was only possible in the 19th century.During this period we have established favorable conditions, in particular, emerged and were well developed means of communication, properly functioning telegraph, mail.

It should be noted that certain government agencies, in connection with its properties may normally exist only in centralized management.These structures include the army, international trade, the navy and others.Means of communication (telegraph, mail), roads (railways) also can not be provided without loss to the jurisdiction of the authorities whose competence extends to a small area.The existence and development of these areas require financing, which is controlled by one to the principles of one power.