What could be more terrible than the war, when the interests of politicians and the powers that killed hundreds of thousands of people.And the more horrible protracted military conflict, during which people learn to live in an environment where death can overtake them at any time, and human life has no value.Such was the Hundred Years War, the causes, stages, results and biographies of actors that deserve careful consideration.
Before studying, what were the results of the Hundred Years War, it should sort out its premises.It all started with the fact that the sons of the French King Philip the Fourth leaving no male heirs.This was the grandson of the monarch's mother is alive by his daughter Isabel - the English king Edward the third, came to the throne of England in 1328 at the age of 16 years.However, he could not claim the throne of France, according to the Salic Law.Thus, in France, the Valois dynasty reigned in the person of Philip the Sixth, who was the nephew of Philip the Fourth, Third and Edward in 1331 was forced to bring him homage for Gascony - French region, considered to be the personal property of the British monarchs.
beginning and the first stage of the war (1337-1360)
6 years after the events described Eduard third decided nevertheless to fight for the throne of his grandfather and sent a challenge to Philip Sixth.Thus began the Hundred Years War, the causes and the results of which are of great interest to those who study the history of Europe.After the declaration of war, the British launched an offensive on the Picardy, in which they supported the people of Flanders and the feudal lords southwestern counties of France.
In the first years after the beginning of the armed conflict were fighting with varying success, until in 1340 there was not a naval battle in Sluis.The victory of the English Channel was under their control, and remained so until the end of the war.Thus, in the summer of 1346, nothing could prevent the troops of Edward the Third cross the Strait, and to capture the city of Caen.From there, the British army was followed to Crecy, August 26 where the famous battle took place, culminating in their triumph, and in 1347 they captured the city and Calais.In parallel with these events unfolded military action in Scotland.However, Fortune continued to smile to Edward the Third, who defeated the army of the kingdom at the battle of Nevilles Crosse, and eliminated the threat of war on two fronts.
pandemic plague and the conclusion of peace in Bretigny
In 1346-1351 visited Europe's "Black Death."The pandemic of the plague claimed the lives of so many that there could be no question about the continuation of hostilities.The only highlight of this period, sung ballads, became a Boy thirty, when the British and French knights with squires staged a mass duel, overseen by several hundred farmers.After the end of the plague England resumed its military operations, which are mainly directed The Black Prince - the eldest son of Edward III.In 1356, he won the Battle of Poitiers and captured the French king John II.Later, in 1360, the Dauphin of France, who was to become King Charles the Fifth, signed the so-called Peace in Bretigny at very unfavorable conditions.
Thus, the results of the Hundred Years War in its first stage were as follows:
- France was completely demoralized;
- England acquired half of Brittany, Aquitaine, Poitiers, Calais, and almost half of the vassal possession of the enemy, that is,John II lost control of a third of its territory;
- Eduard third undertook on its own behalf and on behalf of their descendants no longer claim the throne of his grandfather;
- second son of John II - Louis of Anjou - was sent to London as a hostage in exchange for the return of his father in France.
Peace from 1360 to 1369 years
After the cessation of hostilities, the peoples of the countries involved in the conflict, have received a break that lasted 9 years.During this time, he escaped from England, Louis of Anjou, and his father, being a knight, true to his word, went into voluntary captivity, where he died.After his death, he ascended to the throne of France, Charles V, who in 1369 falsely accused the British of violating the peace agreement and resumed hostilities against them.
Typically those who study the course and outcome of the Hundred Years War, characterized by the time interval between 1369 and 1396 years, as a series of constant battles, which in addition to the main parties involved and the Kingdom of Castile, Portugal and Scotland.During this period, there were the following significant events:
- in 1370 in Castile with the help of the French came to power Enrique II, who became their faithful ally;
- two years later was released on the city of Poitiers;
- in 1372 at the Battle of La Rochelle, the Franco-Castilian combined fleet defeated the British squadron;
- 4 years died Black Prince;
- died in 1377 Edward the third, and ascended the throne of England, Richard II minor;
- 1392 with the King of France began to show signs of madness;
- four years later, an armistice was concluded, caused at frazzled opponents.
When the madness of King Charles the Sixth was obvious to everyone in the country began internecine strife in which the party won Armagnac.No better was the case in England, entered into a new war with Scotland, which was also to pacify the rebels Ireland and Wales.In addition, there deposed Richard II, on the throne and reigned Henry IV and then his son.Thus, up to 1415, both countries were unable to continue the war and were in a state of armed truce.
third stage (1415-1428)
Those who explores the course and consequences of the Hundred Years War, it is usually the most interesting event called the emergence of such a historical phenomenon, as a woman-warrior, who could become the head of the army of feudal knights.We are talking about Joan of Arc, who was born in 1412, on the formation of personality which had a huge impact events in the years 1415-1428.Historical science considers this period, the third phase of the Hundred Years War and identifies the following as key events:
- battle of Agincourt in 1415, which won the Henry the Fifth;
- the signing of Troyes, according to which the mad King Charles VI declared his successor King of England;
- capture by the British in Paris in 1421;
- death of Henry the Fifth and the announcement of his year-old son the King of England and France;
- defeated former Dauphin Charles, whom a significant portion of the French considered the legitimate king at the Battle of Kravan;
- British siege of Orleans, which began in 1428, during which the world first heard the name of Joan of Arc.
end of the war (1428-1453)
Orleans had great strategic importance.If the British managed to seize it, the answer to the question "what are the results of the Hundred Years' War" would have been very different, and the French could even lose its independence.Fortunately for the country, it was revealed the girl, calling itself Jeanne Virgin.She came to the Dauphin Charles in March 1429 and announced that the Lord had commanded her to stand at the head of the French troops and to lift the siege of Orleans.After a series of interviews and tests Karl believed her and appointed commander of his troops.As a result, May 8 Orleans was saved, June 18, the army defeated the army of Joan of British at the Battle of Pate, and on 29 June at the insistence of the virgin of Orleans began "bloodless campaign" dauphin to Reims.There, he was crowned as Charles the Seventh, but shortly afterwards stopped to listen to the advice of the warrior.
few years later Joan was captured by the Burgundians, who passed the English girl, and those of her executed on charges of heresy and idolatry.However, the results of the Hundred Years War had already been predetermined, and even the death of the Virgin of Orleans could not prevent the liberation of France.The last battle in the war was the Battle of Castillon in 1453, when the British lost Gascony, belonging to them more than 250 years.
Results of the Hundred Years War (1337-1453)
As a result of this protracted conflict mezhdinasticheskogo England lost all its continental territories in France, retaining only the port of Calais.In addition, in response to a question about what the outcome of the Hundred Years War, the specialists in the field of military history meet, that its result changed dramatically methods of warfare, as well as the creation of new types of weapons.
consequences of the Hundred Years War
Echoes of the armed conflict predetermined relationship of Britain and France for centuries ahead.In particular, up to 1801 the English and then British monarchs bore the title of the kings of France, which in no way contributed to the establishment of friendly relations.
Now you know, when I was the Hundred Years War, the causes, course, and outcome of motives protagonists whose almost 6 centuries are the subject of many historians.