Electric charge

All bodies consist of indivisible small particles called elementary.They have mass and can be attracted to each other.According to the law of gravity, increasing the distance between the particles relative to the force of attraction decreases slowly (it is inverse square).The strength of the interaction of the particles exceeds the force of gravity.These interactions are called "electric charge", and particles - charged.

called the electromagnetic interaction of the particles.It is characteristic of the majority of elementary particles.If it is not among them, then talk about the absence of charge.

electric charge determines the level of intensity of the electromagnetic interaction.It is an essential characteristic of elementary particles, which determines their behavior.Denoted by the letter "q" or "Q".

Macroscopic standard unit of electrical charge does not exist, create it because it is not possible because of its inevitable leaks.In atomic physics, the unit shall take charge of an electron.The International System of Units, it is set by a current.Charge in one pendant (1 C) indicates that it passes at a current of 1 A for 1 second through a section of the conductor.This is a fairly high charge.A small body it is impossible to tell.But in the neutral conductor in motion in charge of 1 C is quite real.

Electric charge is a scalar physical quantity that describes the ability of the particles or bodies to enter into an electromagnetic force interaction between them.

the study of the interaction is an important idea of ​​a point charge.He is a charged body whose dimensions are much smaller than the distance from it to the observation point or other charged particles.When two point charges the distance between them is much greater than their linear dimensions.

particles have opposite charges protons - positive electrons - negatively.These signs (plus and minus) reflect the ability of the particles to be attracted (with different characters) and a start (with one).In nature, the positive and negative indicators of offset each other.

electric charge particles is the same in absolute value, regardless of whether it is positive as a proton, or negative, as the electron.The minimum charge is said to be elementary.They have all the charged particles.Separate charge of the particles is not possible.The minimum value is determined experimentally.

electric charge and its properties can be measured by the electrometer.It consists of rotating around a horizontal axis of the metal rod and arrows.If you touch the rod to the positively charged wand, the arrow deflected by a certain angle.This is due to the charge distribution of the arrow and the rod.Rotate the arrow due to the force of repulsion.By increasing the charge increases and the angle of deviation from vertical.That is, it shows the value of the charge that is transmitted rods electrometer.

are the following properties of the electric charge.They can be positive or negative (random selection of names), which attract and repel.The charges can be transmitted by contact from one body to others.One body in different environments may have different charges.An important feature is the discontinuity, which means the existence of the smallest, universal charge similar rates which are multiples of any bodies.Inside the closed system the algebraic sum of all the charges remain constant.The nature of the charges of the same sign do not arise and disappear at the same time.