Church of the Intercession at Fili was built in the early 1690's on the territory of a country manor Boyar LK Naryshkin.The temple consists of two parts.The first of them - the Church of the Intercession - is considered the bottom, and the second - the Saviour - called top.This beautiful church was recognized as a masterpiece of a unique style of Naryshkin.This monument belongs to rannepetrovskomu time.Church of the Savior looks the same as in the construction.Its unique interiors with icons Kirill Ulanov and Karp Zolotarev miraculously survived and survived.
The first temple with the Chapel of the Conception of St. Anne, built in Fili, was made of wood.Save the document in which it is written that the church was built in 1619.At that time, the land belonged to Prince Mstislavsky.Interestingly, the Church of the Intercession in Fili appeared thanks to the important events connected with the Troubles.In the fall of 1618 Hetman Sahaidachny with the Polish Prince Vladislav tried to storm the walls of Moscow.Russian troops managed to repel all attacks of the enemy.This great event was the end of confusion and devastation of the Moscow State.
Defenders of the city saw it as some kind of special protection of the Mother of God.And after she decided to erect several temples.It Pokrovsky Church in Medvedkovo, scarring, and Fili Izmailovo.
In 1689 the land on which the village of Fili, were handed over to the boyar Lev Kirillovich Naryshkin.He was the uncle of the king Peter I. The new owner immediately started equipping their new possessions.In the beginning, he built a solid house with a tower and a clock on it, then the various outbuildings: malt, stables and bestial yards.Homesteads had a large orchard and a beautiful park with terraces.In addition, there were also several cascading ponds made on the latest technologies of the time.
But the main building, which took Naryshkin, was a church in Fili.Legend says that the construction of its history is closely linked to events that occurred during Archer's rebellion in 1682.Then the archers were killed Naryshkin older brothers - Ivan and Athanasius.The younger, Lev Kirillovich, miraculously managed to escape.Then he vowed that if he survived, certainly raise up a church in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary and in memory of their fallen brothers.
's been 7 years since his escape.Acquire new land, he has not forgotten his promise.Naryshkin laid a new stone Church of the Intercession of the Virgin.
As you know, the estate has been the Church of the Intercession, so in honor of this holy feast was consecrated lower (winter) church.It should be noted that the exact date of construction is unknown because all documents were burned in a fire in 1712.Church of the Intercession at Fili, a style that is perfect for the house church, was presentable, solemn and elegant look.Luxury Naryshkinskaya construction had to show nobility, gentility and wealth of its owner, and all the virtues that were inherent in it.
must say that the bright and original style that originated at the turn of XVII-XVIII centuries and later became a leading Russian architectural art, was named the Naryshkin is due Filevskaya temple.
Such buildings were very expensive, so their construction could afford only the most wealthy nobles.It is worth noting that the name of the style is rather arbitrary.Yes, the Church of the Intercession at Fili is largely due to this fact, but apart from her were erected and other monuments built by members of the genus Naryshkin.
Since the family owner of the estate was the most close to the royal house, the glorification of the dynasty of Tsar Peter I could not but affect both the external and the internal decoration of the church.The clearest proof of that are the crosses located on the east and west sides of the church.They were crowned with double-headed eagle - the symbol of statehood, and a small balcony on the west side is called the royal box.
All this became possible thanks to the fact that Naryshkin personally participated in the decoration of the new stone church.In addition, and Tsar Peter I also put my hand to it.His order, he singled out from the treasury to the church decoration four hundred ducats in gold.According to legend, the king sometimes came to Philly, but never held reserved for him at the box, and was in the choir, which sang the choir.
In 1705 the Church of the Intercession in Fili was decorated with beautiful stained glass trophy with colored glass.They brought himself Naryshkin Narva, conquered by Peter I. They were deposited image of vegetable ornaments, scenes from the biblical life and fanciful knight's coat of arms.
more than three centuries of the church exterior Filevskaya repeatedly been altered.The archives have been found drawings of this unique architectural monument, dating from the end of the XVIII century.Thanks to them, it turned out that the staircase, built originally to have been altered during the restoration work carried out in the church under the direction of MF Kazakov But at the top of the church preserved in its original form sills made of artificial marble.
impact of war
Patriotic War of 1812 turned out to be devastating for the church.He was ruthlessly sacked by French soldiers.Also it brought great damage to themselves and the Great Patriotic War.I'm sure many have seen photos of churches and temples destroyed by bombing.
restoration work went very slowly and intermittently for 25 years (1955-1980).A large contribution to the rescue of a unique monument made Architects Ilienko IV and St. Michael E.
First set to restore the facade of the building.It has been restored and the head of the crosses, white stone floors and furniture.We can say that it is on the church worked out technique, which is subsequently reduced on all architectural structures Naryshkin style.
Until now, no one knows what color the walls of the building were originally.It is unfortunate that at that time it was impossible to take photos of churches and temples.And now we can only guess.We can assume that the walls could be the same as that of the Trinity Temple, located in the Trinity-Lykov.It was built at the same time as the Church of the Intercession in Fili younger brother Lev Kirillovich Naryshkin - Martemyan.Walls are painted in the temple viper, imitating marble.The very first of the paint layers that were found Filevskiy church belongs to the XVIII century.Then she had the blue color.
next stage of restoration work began in the early 70-ies.The temple was transferred to the Central Museum, specializing in ancient art.Now the main goal was to recreate the interior.The Intercession Church did not have any of the original decoration, so to restore the decor XVIII-XIX centuries had to literally from scratch.
work was carried out not only at the bottom, and the upper church.Most effort has been spent on the restoration of a unique thread, adorned the iconostasis, as well as choirs, Kyoto and the royal box.
first upper and lower interior of the church were painted.The exception was the only body of the Saviour church.They restored paintings depicting New Testament Trinity with nine angels.And in the upper church was abandoned later painting, dated XIX century.
Through years of painstaking and hard work of many architects and restorers of the church found a second life.They managed to maintain a truly magnificent monument Naryshkin style and recreate the original appearance of the temple.