Subdivisions of Russia: Past and Present

administrative-territorial division is one of the main components of the concept of "form of government."The practice of the leading states and diverse experience of our country proves that how competently arranged in territorial terms the country depends, including its socio-economic development and welfare of the citizens.

Administrative-territorial division in modern conditions is a complex public-legal institutions in which not only provides overall control of the territory, but also laid the necessary political, ideological and socio-economic basis for the further development of society.

Subdivisions of Russia Empire period, almost in its final form has been formed under Catherine II.It was during her reign the whole country was divided into 50 provinces, which in turn are divided into districts.It is worth paying attention to the fact that the administrative-territorial division of Russia in this period is not based on national or any historical sign, but only on the number of population.So, in the province it was part of the territory, with a population of 300 to 400 thousand people.

This territorial division of Russia pursued several goals.On the one hand, these territories have been much easier to manage, keeping them safe and forcing local people to pay taxes.On the other hand, about the same number of residents of the earth bring in terms of taxes, virtually identical to tax, so the strong disparities in social and economic development of certain territories were not.Finally, in the third place, the division of land, which is densely populated by representatives of a particular nationality, several provinces had, according to the central government, drastically reduce their desire for independence and separatism.

on quite different principles, implementing administrative-territorial division of Russia drew leaders of the Soviet period.On the one hand, they are at the forefront put the economic feasibility of allocation of certain territories and regions, and on the other - the leaders of the USSR and RSFSR, could not so easily brush aside the aspirations of a number of nationalities to obtain at least the cultural and territorial autonomy.Sometimes these trends are in conflict with each other, leading to a variety of changes in the territorial structure of our country.

So, in the first years of Soviet power there was a process of disaggregation of the old king's provinces, which led to the emergence of areas such as Sverdlovsk, Cherepovets or Tsaritsynskaya.In addition, during the same period actively appeared new state formations, which today few people remember - The municipality of Germans of the Volga region, the North Caucasus republic, Lithuanian and Belarusian republic, and others.

Subsequently, the whole administrative-territorial diversity was replaced by a clear structure, which included a three-tier management system: Region (Region) - District - areas.After the mid-1930s.districting was considered impractical, administrative-territorial division of the RSFSR adopted the form in which it existed before the collapse of the Soviet Union.

territorial division of the Russian Federation inherited from the Soviet period, a lot has changed both quantitatively and qualitatively.In particular, instead of the 16 autonomous republics that were part of the RSFSR, now in Russia there are 21 republics, the rights and freedoms which are greatly enhanced.

Almost all the autonomous regions, with the exception of the Jewish and autonomous regions also received the status of the republics, sharply stand out from the territories and regions.The new status of the subjects of the Russian Federation emphasized not only by the Constitution, adopted in 1993, but also bilateral agreements which have been concluded between the Centre and the regions as early as the 1990s.

Subdivisions of Russia is currently experiencing a very difficult period.This is due, on the one hand, the fact that the majority of subjects alone can not fulfill its social obligations, and on the other - so that tensions remain and the danger of separatist sentiment in a number of national republics.