United States is considered to be a superpower with the most powerful economy in the world.Area States is 9,629,091 square meters.km populous state is on third place (310 million).The country stretches from Canada to Mexico, taking up a large part of the North American continent.Reporting to the United States are also Alaska, Hawaii and several island territories.Relief of America is varied: the Appalachian Mountains and the Cordillera are replaced by vast deserts and valleys, jungles, forests, the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean and the picturesque islands.
Before colonization on the territory of the modern state of the Indians and the Inuit lived.The prairie inhabited by various nomadic tribes.According to rough estimates, in the XVI century in America lived about 11 million Indians.After the discovery of the continent by Columbus (1492) began his mass settlement by Europeans.In particular, these uninhabited lands came the French, the Spanish, the British, Swedes and Dutch.In the 18th century Russian began to explore Alaska.First, the most crowded stream of immigrants heading to North America from England.
characteristic feature of the North American colonies was slavery.First, there was the so-called layer of "white slaves", who became slaves mainly from the non-payment of debts, or as the result of enslaving agreements.Gradually, they were replaced by the "black slaves", who in the early 17th century, were shipped to Virginia from Africa.Negros worked, as a rule, on the plantations in the southern colonies.
In the late 17th century on the east coast were created by the 13 British colonies.In 1775 began American Revolutionary War with England.June 4, 1776 was proclaimed the Declaration of Independence of the United States.England recognized the new state in 1787.At the same time the US Constitution was adopted.In 1803 the United States bought the Louisiana Territory from France, and in 1819 the Spaniards gave way to America, Florida.In 1845-m Americans joined Texas.From 1846 to 1848 the United States was at war with Mexico, which resulted in the annexed significant part of Mexican territory: New Mexico, parts of California and Arizona.In 1846, the US government bought the British Pacific.In 1870 in the country fully into California.In short, the history of America has a lot of bloodstains.
The civil war of 1861-1865.in the United States, slavery was abolished.In 1867, America went to Alaska.In 1898 it took place the Spanish-American War, and after the defeat of the Spaniards under the jurisdiction of the United States passed the Hawaiian Islands, Guam and Puerto Rico.This, in principle, and ended with the creation of the United States.
vast territory, which captured Americans were inhabited by Indian tribes.Since the Indians were no match for the regular army, their massively killed or herded into reservations.Tidbits for the United States were foreign lands.They tried to seize Cuba, which at the time belonged to Spain.Unsuccessful attempt to subdue the left Nicaragua and many other countries in Central America.
First and Second World War
United States declared neutrality after the outbreak of World War II.American monopolists actively assisted loans and supplies of England.However, in 1917 America entered the war on the side of the Entente.During the First World War the United States have approved significant economic control over Latin America.They made military intervention in Mexico (1914, 1916), the Dominican Republic (1916), Haiti (1915), Cuba (1912, 1917).Under pressure from the US, Denmark was forced to sell them to the Virgin Islands.
After the start of World War II, fearing the regime of Nazi Germany, the US actively helped Britain and France.Later, President Roosevelt declared its readiness to help and the Soviet Union.In the war there was the anti-Hitler coalition of Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union.December 7, 1941, Japan suddenly attacked Pearl Harbor (Hawaii), the Philippines and other islands.In response, the US military conducted the atomic bombing of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945.After the Japanese surrender its territory took the US Army.The damage suffered by the Americans during World War II, a small (332 killed).Concatenate States became the only country that has strengthened their political, economic and military position after the war.
history of the country the United States after 1949
In 1949, at the suggestion of the United States, European countries have set up military alliance NATO.In 1954, in the south-east Asia have created an organization called SEATO.
To prevent the spread of communism in 1950-1953.America participated in the Korean War.In 1965-1973 he conducted the Vietnam-American War.In 1952 he came to power, the Republican Party of Dwight D. Eisenhower, who continued the policy rather strained relations with the USSR.After he was elected President John F. Kennedy.It was during his reign, there was the so-called Cuban crisis, which has been linked with the intention of the US authorities to overthrow Fidel Castro.Kennedy was shot in 1963 in Dallas.The commission of inquiry has not yet sounded the true information on the customers of the crime.
In the late '60s began mass complaints about violations of the rights of black citizens.In 1968, Pastor killed Martin Luther King.
In 70 years, the United States of America invaded Cambodia and Laos.In 1970, the American authorities have actively supported Israel in the war against the Arabs.In 1972, over prolonged Vietnam War, it was signed a year later Paris Peace Agreement.
With the coming to power of President Nixon relations between America and the Soviet Union have improved, have established ties with China.In 1972 the head of the United States visited the two communist countries.However, due to the case of Watergate, Nixon had to resign.
Significant changes in the internal politics of the country, introduced President Ronald Reagan (1981-1989).It significantly reduced the taxes and has taken measures to reduce unemployment.
In 1989, President George W. Bush was elected.He noted that the military operation carried out against the Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein, has created NAFTA (free trade agreement) and signed a pact with the Soviet Union on disarmament START.
next chapter states - Bill Clinton - mostly engaged in domestic politics.The period of his presidency was marked by economic growth: it was created more than 20 million jobs, national income increased by 15%, and the budget surplus to 1.3 trillion multiplied.
is tragic day for the United States was the September 11, 2001.According to the official version, the pilots of the bombers of the terrorist group "Al-Qaeda", captured passenger aircraft, rammed two towers of the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.A third plane, likely heading to the White House, but crashed in Pennsylvania.
great length and area of the country are responsible for the presence of almost all types of climatic conditions.Earth, which is located north of 40 degrees.w., characterized temperate.And all the territories placed for that latitude, under the influence of a subtropical climate.Hawaii and the southern part of Florida is located in the tropics, and the Alaska Peninsula affect arctic mass.In the west of the Great Plains are semi-deserts.In the coastal regions of California's Mediterranean climate prevails.
Population by population States ranks third in the world.There are about 309 million people.Due to political, cultural and historical reasons, the United States - one of the most multicultural countries in the world.The racial composition of the country is composed of representatives of the Mongoloid, Caucasoid, Negroid races.There are also indigenous peoples of the territory: the Indians, Hawaiians, Eskimos and Aleuts.
In the United States can live together representatives of various denominations: Catholics, Buddhists, Protestants, Jews, Christians.Muslims, Mormons, and so on. d. Atheists consider themselves to be no more than 4% of the population.
official language is English, although in reality the Americans speak more than 300 languages and dialects.In each state has its own naming, vibrant cultural traditions and individual lifestyle.
United States is a federal republic.It includes 50 states and the District of Columbia.The main legislative framework - the US Congress (bicameral parliament).The judicial power supervises the Supreme Court.The executive power is concentrated in the hands of the president.Who holds the presidency Barack Obama.
In 1894, the state ranked first on industrial production.Today, the country the United States is the leading power of the size of gross domestic product.Main activities - industry and agriculture.The state is rich in natural resources such as oil, lead, coal, gas, uranium, rock ore, sulfur, and so fosofority. D. It is safe to say that there is produced almost all the main types of minerals.States - is the leading producer of ferrous metals.Quite well developed chemical, oil refining and nuclear industry.Perfectly established here clothing, tobacco, textile, leather and footwear, and food production.A strategically important area is the production of civil and military aircraft, space technology, and so on. D. First place in the world in production of cars also takes the United States.Features of the country lies in the fact that, along with the industry is actively developing agriculture.United States - the world's leading supplier of milk, eggs and meat.A significant place is occupied by rabbits, fish, poultry.
area of the country the United States simply enormous, so a list of all man-made and natural attractions is endless.The mountain ranges, waterfalls, canyons, national parks, scenic coast of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, luxury spas, museums, lakes, bridges, amusement parks, zoos, casinos, skyscrapers, castles - all this certainly deserves the attention of tourists and locals.
most frequently tours in the United States include a trip to the largest cities in America: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Boston, Baltimore, and others. Most of all travelers interested in the Statue of Liberty, Times Square, Las Vegas, Niagara Falls,Grand Canyon (AZ), California "Disneyland."
There are a lot of reserves and national parks.The most popular of them is recognized as Yellowstone National Park.
way of life
economic development, higher living standards, a reliable social safety net program - all this is characteristic of the United States.Favorable conditions beckon to America, thousands of people from all over the world.United States - a country of great opportunities for every citizen.The highest value here is the welfare of the individual and the family, as well, increasing its own property, every citizen makes his country stronger and richer.
working American priori can not live in misery, be it a simple driver or the director of the group.According to the average data, the income of a family in the US is about 49 thousand. Dollars.The law allows to realize its ambitions, even immigrants.And if the migrant in the first generation can not run for president, the governor of the state, he may be appointed.In other areas of migrants can work without restrictions.
is worth noting that the unemployed are also living well.If a person is unable (or unwilling) to work, he can live comfortably on a decent state benefits, but at the same time still enjoy medical care.If you wish, it can be retrained and get a free addition a number of grants.Secondary and higher education are available free of charge.US - developed country that can take care of a prosperous fate of all its citizens.
pretty popular way to move to the United States for permanent residence is to participate in the lottery "Green Card."Each year, thanks to the practical jokes US visas receive about 50 thousand people from every corner of the world (whether Latin America, India or China).The objective of the lottery - to maintain the balance between the different ethnic groups of the total population of the country.Therefore, if from some of the state over the past 5 years, immigrants have arrived too much, these powers may be excluded from participation in a lottery for a certain time.For example, in 2009, the same fate befell Russia.However, even if you will be the winner of the lottery, get US citizenship just will not work - this is only possible after five years of permanent residence in that State.
US authorities are interested in attracting the best specialists of the most diverse professions.Visas to the right to work every year issued about 675 thousand foreigners.Get a visa has the opportunity to every person in a given period if the state is interested in his skills and knowledge.Like many other major countries of the world, the US is now feeling the shortage of specialists in the field of chemistry, IT-technologies, physicians, pharmacists, architects, developers, builders, farmers, managers and other professionals.Inozemtsev also allowed to come to study at American universities.
Foreigners who are engaged in business, have a chance to get a business visa.It's enough to open a US office of his company, operating in Russia or other countries.And you can buy a ready business in America and lead it.
Wealthy immigrants can obtain the status of residents of the state, provided investment in the country's economy at least $ 1 million.In some cases, if a person has acquired luxury properties in the United States, he can obtain a residence permit.
Phones nationwide seven-digit.Country Code US - 1.To enter the international relationship with the United States, you need to dial 011, the country code, area code, and then just a number.In a telephone code 1 is also Canada and the Caribbean.
country's currency - the US dollar.
Stores in America, usually open from Monday to Saturday from 9.30 to 18.00.On Sunday, the shops await customers from 12.00 to 17.00.Almost all states are taxed purchases (from 5 to 12% of the cost of purchased goods).Large shopping centers are generally open to the public from 09.00 to 21.00.
Currently, America has an important place in the international political arena.Nevertheless, the government rarely calls himself detached, most often in the statements of the President sounds the phrase, "We and our allies."About US associates often referred to in many official documents.But who is a partner of the state under consideration?
countries supporting the US - is first and foremost allies in the NATO military bloc.With the assistance of the North Atlantic Alliance hosts many large-scale military operations.Each participating country contributes to the attraction of a contingent of troops.For example, after the September 11 terrorist attacks the United States has initiated a military operation in Afghanistan.It was attended by 4,400 German soldiers.Such assistance from Germany can be regarded as an act of a loyal ally.
Meanwhile, a scandal in 2013 over the wiretapping Angela Merkel, US intelligence agencies a little tarnished the friendly relations between the two great powers.
Active cooperation is also carried out between the US and English-speaking countries such as England, New Zealand, Canada and Australia.
the United States and Latin America
After the crisis of 2007 to US domination of the Americas, to put it mildly shaken.Throughout the 20th century, Latin America oscillated between respect and hatred of the US.Now, many countries in South America and Central heating is maintained with the US economic and diplomatic ties, rather dressed relationships observed only with Cuba and Venezuela.
Description of the country the United States can continue for a long time.This superpower strikes svoiey history, nature, architecture, climate and way of life and the general atmosphere.