Waves: types of waves and the determination of the wave.

waves are not only in the water.Of them is sound, light, and so on. D. How can it be that such a wave at all?


This term is used in various scientific fields, but especially in physics.According to the terminology of the discipline process of wave propagation - it is a wave.Defining simple, but the reality is not so simple.The individual particles can not move, but only moved near their equilibrium positions.What follows is a property of waves: they are the means of energy transfer without a change in substance.Sometimes it happens, but only as a side effect.Those who once was the sea, well imagine that such a wave.

Determination, though - it's not the only thing you need to know, when confronted with this phenomenon.What is important is that it is very closely linked with the fluctuations so they are going to study together in both theory and practice.


waves can be generated in different ways.The reason for their appearance is always an excitation of the particles and removing them out of balance.This can be done by means of special devices, such as antennas or radiators.In addition, it could be the occurrence of instabilities in the case of strong wind, because of which the water runs ripples.

history of studying the phenomenon

studying the mechanisms of emergence and spread of waves in the various scientific disciplines such as oceanography, seismology, mechanics, acoustics, medicine and, of course, the physics in general, as well as many others, were engaged in many well-known scientists.It is believed that the most important contribution made by the German explorer Heinrich Hertz.He set some patterns and discovered previously unknown phenomena associated with the interaction of electromagnetic waves, such as interference, diffraction and polarization.His investigations were subsequently used to create a radio link.Of course, there were other scientists who have studied this phenomenon and the development of science have made a significant contribution to, for example, Maxwell, but that name was immortalized in the Hertz unit of frequency waves.

Types waves

There are many classifications according to various criteria.First of all, it is the direction of oscillation of the wave.Types of waves on this criterion: longitudinal, transverse, mixed.There are very different ways of grouping: a description of the equations, geometry, physical environment and so on. D.

It is important that in the event of this phenomenon is nothing fundamentally new in the matter does not appear to be changing only the organization of the particles, which gives rise to certain events.From the point of view of perception which may be expressed as light, color, sound, radiation, and invisible energy, etc... In turn, they can also be classified.

addition, another distinguished mechanical and electromagnetic waves.The types of waves from the first category can also be divided into elastic and those occurring on the water surface.This classification includes consideration of the propagation medium.In general, the primary and most popular division only includes sound and electromagnetic waves.About them in the future and will be discussed in more detail.

General description

Every wave has a number of properties and parameters by which it can be described.Firstly, it is its length, which is designated as λ (lambda).Furthermore, it has frequency period and rate.Separately isolated wavefront or surface, ie the set of points that are in the same phase, and the beam or a vector indicating the direction of propagation.

With the last two parameters linked another classification.Depending on the type of the wavefront can be spherical, and planar.To simplify the calculations and solve some problems of the surface can be considered flat, but only if a significant distance from the source.For all of these characteristics, and emit different types of waves.


addition to the most clear of things like strings or sound waves of the sea, you can also think of the circles on the water, emerging from a thrown rock, explosions, sleeping on a soft mattress, and many other phenomena.Ultra-violet or infra-red rays, as well as what is not audible to the human ear - all these are manifestations of the same phenomenon of wave propagation.Types of waves are so diverse, and they are so multifaceted that really hard to believe that things are so different, in fact, have the same nature.

Sound waves: features

Hearing gives a person a great deal of information about the world.But without waves, this would be impossible.Sound variation thereof refers to the elastic.Their peculiarity is that the length of these waves and consequently the frequency is such that the height is within earshot.For a man, the range is from 20 to 20,000 Hertz.Anything lower is called infrasound, and above - ultrasound.The first is still poorly understood, but the second is widely used in science, medicine and many other areas.These are the kinds of sound waves.These characteristics are determined by such parameters as length, frequency and combination of different modes of vibration.It affects respectively, volume, pitch and timbre.

Like any other wave, the sound is caused by vibrations of nature.It can be felt, for example, standing on a concert next to the column.Waves can propagate many kinds of fluids, including liquids and solids.In vacuum as deemed inaudible sounds.That is why so often reproaches toward Hollywood filmmakers to shoot scenes with large-scale and high-profile bombings in a vacuum.The study of sound vibrations and waves has been a fairly extensive section of physics - acoustics.This is very interesting science has many ways to apply in my life.For example, using the knowledge of acoustics designed concert and opera halls to performances were clearly audible at all locations.

perception of sounds humans and animals is due to the conversion of mechanical vibrations into electrical signals.This mechanism is quite complex, but its importance can not be overstated.However, the same can be said about the sound at all.You can use them to communicate, to transmit information, to change the mood.They affect people, even if they are out of earshot.That is why there is, for example, the concept of "noise pollution".Per unit volume received is white, so called in honor of the scientist A. Bell, inventor of the telephone.

Properties and types of electromagnetic waves

But there is a special type of oscillation, without which it is difficult to imagine modern life.Mobile phones, wireless, radio, microwave oven and many other devices would not exist if it had not been discovered electromagnetic waves.And it would be impossible to perceive color, and the world would not exist.How can you imagine it?

In contrast to this kind of sound oscillations can propagate in any environment, including under vacuum, and their speed is the speed of light.In fact, this type of wave is the propagation of electromagnetic fields in space and time.Their structure is extremely interesting, because it is composed of two parts.The magnetic and electric fields alternately generate each other and distributed mutually perpendicular vectors.One of the main characteristics of such a wave - it is always transverse.In addition, it always applies to the acceleration.

distinguish between different types of electromagnetic waves in terms of their length.There are 6 major bands from the longest to the shortest:

  • radio;
  • infrared radiation, in other words, the heat;
  • visible light and color;
  • ultraviolet light;
  • X-rays;
  • gamma radiation (including radiation).

It really is almost impossible to imagine a world without all these phenomena.