State of Australia is on the same continent and some nearby islands, the largest of which is Tasmania.The area of Australia is 7,682,300 square kilometers.The land thus takes sq 7,617,930.km.The coastline stretches for more than twenty-five thousand kilometers.
Australia Square in the central part of the continent occupied an extensive area of lowlands, much of which is a pool of Lake Eyre and the Murray River.In addition, there is a plain Nallabor.Northwest Territories famous Great Western Plateau - an area four great deserts: Gibson, Simpson, the Great Sandy and Great Victoria Desert.
Features Australia are such that the country has enough fresh water.Most of the rivers are located in the eastern part of the continent, including Darling, Murray and others.Waterways that are in the center and west, dry summer.
water in most lakes salty.Is no exception and the largest of them - the Air.It is twelve meters below sea level.
By area, mainland Australia is more than seven and a half million square kilometers.Its territory is inhabited by 23,625,130 people (July 2014).For the most part it is Europeans - 95%, the remaining 5% are Asians and natives (4% and 1%, respectively).The official language is English.
It is known that ancient people took a certain area of Australia for forty thousand years ago.It is assumed that they came from Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian island.
first inhabitants are mainly engaged in hunting and gathering.Representatives of many subsequent generations have begun to actively settle on the mainland and nearby islands, opening up new territory.Despite the relatively primitive technology skills, based on the use of stone, wood and bone, social and spiritual life was already at a high level.For example, most spoke several languages, and sometimes geographically remote tribal groups organized confederation.
At present the area of Australia mastered the fullest.The so-called white spots on the continent is not.Nevertheless, 89% of the population - the townspeople.That is why Australia is one of the most urbanized countries in the world.The average life expectancy for 2005-2010 years.It was 81.6 years.This is an impressive figure.
Religion There is no official religion.Most residents - Christians.According to data for 2006, 25.8% of the population are followers of the Catholic faith.Another larger denominations - Anglican (18.7% of the population).In addition, living in the country Presbyterians, Adventists, Pentecostals, Methodists and the Salvation Army, Buddhists, Jews and Islamists.
weekly church services is visited by about one and a half million people.An important role in public life play a variety of Christian charities and hospitals.The system of Catholic schools is also very developed.About six and a half million children are enrolled in such educational institutions.The Church of England has been raising about a hundred thousand young people.The United Church operates a network of 48 schools.
geographical position of Australia's climate leads to significant differences in different parts of the country.So, in the northern territories dominated by sub-equatorial, in the central and south - equatorial climate.Consider the weather especially Australia.The average annual temperature in the northern part of the country is in the range of 23-28 degrees Celsius.Maximum precipitation (up to fifteen hundred millimeters) is in the summer.In winter cold winds blow dry, leading to drought.With regard to the coastal plains and high slopes, they are moistened and feature soft warm climate.The temperature of the warmest month in Sydney is about twenty-five degrees, and the coldest - about fifteen degrees with the sign "plus".
in central and western regions of the mainland tropical desert climate.In the summer (December to February), the thermometer most of the daylight hours is at around thirty degrees or below, and in winter drops to ten or fifteen points.In the central part of the continent in the summer even hotter - up to forty-five Celsius.This night the temperature can drop to zero degrees.The rainfall in this part of the country's few - two or three hundred millimeters per year.
climate in the south-western areas is similar to the Mediterranean Spanish and French.Usually, summer is hot and dry and winters damp and warm.The temperature during the year varies slightly.
geographical position of Australia and especially the climate of the country led to the spread of xerophilous plant - specific cereals, umbrella acacia, eucalyptus and bottle trees.It is noteworthy that of the 12 th. Of species of local flora 9 th. Are endemic, ie, they can be found only on the mainland under consideration.
Tropical forests north of the country include eucalyptus, palm trees, fig trees and thickets of bamboo.In the southern area of savannah uncommon group of eucalyptus trees and umbrella acacias.On the ground spreading a thick grass cover.In the eastern part of the country is dominated by subtropical evergreen forests with many tree horsetails, ferns and tall eucalyptus trees with twenty meters stems.
Fauna The fauna of the country is considered to be unique.And all because of 9/10 of all animal species found only on the amazing continent called Australia.Kangaroo, frilled lizard, koalas and platypuses are found only on this continent.Among the animals most marsupials (not less than one hundred and twenty species).The country has a lot of bats, dingoes and rodents.In addition, the egg-laying mammals live here, so-called living fossils - the echidna and the platypus.
As for ungulates, monkeys, and representatives of the order of prey, they do not have on the mainland.But Australia is famous for lots of birds - emus, cassowaries, cockatoos parrots, crowned pigeons, birds medososov, black swans, birds of paradise and Lyrebird.The most unusual reptiles - lizards and snakes-asalidy.Amazing inhabitant yuzhnoavstraliyskih rivers - Queensland Lungfish - lungfish and one lung.
device state.Political parties
Australia is a federal parliamentary state, the full name - Commonwealth of Australia.Federation consists of six states - Victoria, Queensland, Tasmania, South and Western Australia, New South Wales.In addition, under the jurisdiction of the Commonwealth are Ashmore and Cartier Islands, McDonald and Heard about.Christmas, Cocos Islands and Coral Sea.
capital is Canberra.First in January 1901 the country gained independence at the same time, it still remains a member of the British Commonwealth.The legislation is based on the common law of England.Australia Day, a national holiday, marks the twenty-sixth of January.
executive power assigned to the British monarch, the Governor-General and Prime Minister, who heads the Cabinet.The Parliament formed the Senate and House of Representatives.
among political parties that have the greatest weight in the state, allocate the Australian Democrats Party, Australian Labor Party, Liberal Party of Australia and National Party of Australia.
State differs highly developed economies.For this indicator, it is comparable with Western European countries.Among the major industries isolated mining, steel, chemical, food and automotive.About five per cent of GNP provide income from agricultural activities.The main agricultural crops are barley and wheat, fruits and sugarcane.Nowhere in the world is not mapped as sheep, as in Australia.Furthermore, there is widespread production of poultry and cattle.
unit of currency is the Australian dollar.Among the major trading partners - the US, New Zealand, Britain and Japan.The world's largest supplier of wheat, wool and beef, the second largest exporter of lamb - it is Australia.The area of the mainland used to the maximum in order to ensure effective economic development and a high level of human well-being.
Water Australia can not be called rich.Viewed continent - the driest in the world.Major rivers on the continent, a little.What is noteworthy in this regard Australia?Murray River - is the main water artery of the country.Its major tributaries - the Goulburn, Darling and Murrumbidgee.They differ most affluent in the period of melting snow in the mountains, but in hot weather is a significant shallowing.Dams were built in almost all the tributaries of the river.Murray near them organized reservoir used for irrigation of gardens, meadows and fields.
Lakes can not be called serious water resources of the country, t. To. They are mostly silty, shallow and salty, but the travelers some amazing ponds attract.For example, Hiller - bright pink lake located on the island of Middle Island.The unusual color of the water in it will never change.Scientists have so far found no explanation for this puzzle.No less interesting is a luminous lake Gippsland, in Victoria.In 2008 there was recorded the highest concentration of microorganisms Noctiluca scintillans (nochesvetok).This was a rare phenomenon observed not only locals, but also a photographer Phil Hart.A man had to constantly throw stones into the water to capture the glowing surface of the water as unusual microorganisms react glow it to external stimuli.
area of Australia by only two per cent is occupied by forests - these resources in the country, too, a little.However, they attract many travelers because of its unusual sight.Such tropical rain forests, both on the shores of the Coral Sea, not found anywhere else.
main natural wealth of the country are, of course, mineral resources.The country most in the world reserves of bauxite and zirconium.In addition, the country is the second largest uranium mining and coal.In Tasmania, deposits of platinum.Australia (on the map is the southwest mainland) rich in gold.In New South Wales mined diamonds, bismuth, antimony and nickel.
it all began
On the mainland ancestors of Australian Aborigines first settled about forty thousand years ago.Because Australia is geographically isolated from the rest of the world, indigenous peoples have a unique religious and cultural traditions.The continent was discovered by Europeans only at the beginning of the XVII century.The first was the Dutchman Yanszon.In 1605, he landed in the Gulf of Carpentaria (North Coast).Due to the remoteness of territorial colonization of Australia began only in 1770.Then James Cook took possession on behalf of King Bay.Subsequently, not far from this place there was the city of Sydney.
Until 1840 Australia on the world map was not a full-fledged state, and a place of exile for subjects of the British monarch, condemned to hard labor.In 1850, local colonies became relatively independent of the British Crown, and eleven years later they formed the independent Commonwealth of Australia.The country began to develop on his own script.Nevertheless, the history of Australia for a long time been associated with England.Thus, the state has provided substantial assistance to Britain during the First and Second World Wars.
time in Australia
Viewed continent located in three time zones.In summer time in Brisbane and Sydney ahead of Moscow for six hours, and in Perth - four.Local time in Australia also varies from state to state.
attracts many vacationers east coast of the country.The most popular resort in Gold Coast with amazing beaches and almost ideal conditions for surfing.Lovers of cultural activities, too, will not be bored.For example, in the capital, you can visit the Museum of Antiquity Nicholson Museum of Australia and National Maritime Museum.Melbourne is famous for the National Gallery of Victoria, here is the famous National Herbarium and Royal Botanic Gardens.What other sights worth seeing?
- is especially popular among tourists Great Barrier Reef.It is the most advanced system of coral reefs in the world and consists of 900 islands and 2900 individual reefs with a total area of 344,400 square kilometers.This is the biggest on the planet formation can be seen even from space.It is located in the Coral Sea, off the northern borders of the continent.
- Sydney Opera House began to build in 1973.Currently, it is one of the most recognizable symbols of the country.This building is more like a ship than a conventional building of the earth.
- In New South Wales Blue Mountains are located.They are formed from sandstone and valleys remarkable depth of more than seven hundred and fifty meters.Basically, there are growing eucalyptus trees and tree ferns.Mountains got their unusual name because of the high concentration of suspended matter in the air of essential oils, eucalyptus allocated.
- Oddly, but in Kakadu National Park no parrot.It got its name from a local tribe.Species in this unique place are stunning: the park is surrounded by the highest cliffs and ledges, safely hiding this paradise from the outside world.That is why in its territory inhabited by these animals, which are not found anywhere else on the planet - polulapchatye geese, Brolga, barramundi and others.If
- urban beauty do not lead you to the delight and contemplation of the protected national parks evokes nostalgia, go to Barossa Valley - the main wine region of the continent.Where you can taste and wonderful drinks, and participate in the grand celebrations.
conclude the narrative description of the Sydney Aquarium.Like so much in Australia, he is unique.Such a huge complex in the world is no more: even a simple preview without stopping at numerous exhibits will take at least three and a half hours.The exhibition is divided into zones by geography - the Great Barrier Reef, Southern and Northern Rivers Southern Oceans.Entrance to the aquarium is impossible to miss because it is located in an improvised bottomless mouth of a shark.