When was built the Moscow Kremlin?

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time when was built the Moscow Kremlin, should be known to everyone who loves Russia.Because it is not only the heart of Russia, the great soul and the largest country in the world, but also one of the most beautiful complexes in the world.

ancient settlements

Excavations have shown that the settlements on the territory of the Kremlin there were 5,000 years ago, and in the VI century BC there already lived Slavic tribes.In the center of Moscow itself found the remains of a settlement related to Dyakovo culture.

Dyakovo strongholds, as a rule, located on promontories of rivers.In ancient times, for reasons of convenience and safety of the first in the county settled the hills on the banks of the river.It is desirable in the mouth so that the water protected the village from both sides.Water arteries served by posts with neighbors and allows for a more intensive trade, and the hills were not available for the enemy and allowed to survey a large area.

Birth Moscow

And when was built the Moscow Kremlin, Borovitsky hill, surrounded on both sides of the Moscow River and Neglinnaya which flows into it, and also located on the top of his settlement, turned into an impregnable fortress.The first mention of the Kremlin refers to 1147.At that time there was not even the walls, erected in the tree.They were only 9 years later - in 1156.The heart of Moscow is first mentioned in connection with the invitation to Yuri Dolgoruky in the newly erected horomina its ally Svyatoslav II of Kiev, Novgorod-Seversky Prince.The arrival of the future relative (their granddaughter and son - the famous Igor and Yaroslavna - married) to a feast and is considered the founding date of Moscow.This is the time when it was built by the Moscow Kremlin.

great builder

After the erection of walls of the Kremlin becomes the surrounding villages and nearby administrative center.Here the inhabitants of these localities found refuge during the invasion of enemies.Gradually increasing the value of the fortress, and the territory expanded.And now, when the son of Alexander Nevsky, Prince Danilo Alexandrovich (1261-1303), the founder of the Moscow princes, the town grew up around the Kremlin, Moscow became the capital of a small principality.

At that time, when it was built by the Moscow Kremlin, Yuri Dolgoruky founded Pereslavl-Zaleski and Yuriev-Polsky.This prince, his whole life is governed Rostov-Suzdal principality and died there, engaged in active urban development.In addition to these cities, he founded Dubna, Kostroma, Dmitrov, flooded during the construction of the Uglich Reservoir Senyatino village and, according to one legend, Gorodets.Additionally, they were built many fortresses and fortified.So, when the Moscow Kremlin was built (year 1147), laid and other strategic points.And nothing indicates that it will grow out of this fortress capital of the largest state in the world.

future capital improvements

A Moscow to build and expand.Prince Ivan Kalita (1283-1341) built the first white-stone cathedral.And it is in 1340 the old wooden walls are replaced by powerful oak.And his grandson Dmitry Donskoy (1350-1389), the son of Moscow Prince Ivan II Red replaces the oak on white stone walls.This was the occasion to call Moscow "white stone".It was so beautiful in the picture displayed by Vasily Vereshchagin, written in 1879, titled "View of the Moscow Kremlin from the Stone Bridge."The capital of Russia, a city with a fascinating history can not but arouse intense interest.Any major city in the country loved and respected by its inhabitants.But Moscow for the Russian people much more.And it is quite natural to want to know more details about the emergence of the city, where it began, how and when was built the Moscow Kremlin, the year of its occurrence and at what Prince erected a miracle.

first literary mention

One of the earliest descriptions of the origin of the great city is in the story "The Legend of the murder of Daniel Suzdal and Moscow's beginning.""Hypation Chronicle" is considered the first reliable source that mentions the Moscow campus - a place of great feast in honor of meeting friends and allies Rostov-Suzdal and Novgorod-Seversky princes.On the question of in which was built the Moscow Kremlin, there are several answers.You can specify a specific date, in connection with which the Kremlin is first mentioned - the day 'heel to the praise of God ", that is, on Saturday, April 4, 1147.It can be a long story about how the Kremlin was built over the centuries.Is it possible to imagine the complex without the Cathedral of the Assumption and the Grand Kremlin Palace?

Kremlin was built and rebuilt

answer to the question of what year was built the Moscow Kremlin, will depend entirely on what is meant by this name - modern whopper, residence of the President of the Russian Federation, or a small wooden structure, withwhere it all started.Not enough pages just to list all the wards, churches, buildings, squares, gardens and monuments of the main socio-political, historical and artistic complex of Russia, which occupies an area of ​​27.5 hectares.The Kremlin resembles an irregular triangle.

One of the jewels of the Kremlin

deserves a special word of the Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin.It was built in 1479.The history of the beginning of its creation belongs to 1326. Great Moscow Prince Ivan Kalita together with Saint Peter laid this year, the first stone cathedral in Moscow.Pervoprestolny city (namely, such status was Moscow) had to be the main church of Holy Russia.This St. Peter belongs to the key role that Moscow becomes the throned.Therefore, after the death of the first Metropolitan of Moscow, he was buried in the unfinished main cathedral of Russia.His power and of the icon "Our Lady of Peter," the original of which was made by the apostle Peter, is one of the major shrines of Russia.The cathedral was rebuilt.This happened during the reign of the unifier of the Russian lands under the authority of Moscow Grand Prince Ivan III.With him in the Kremlin launched a large-scale construction - all buildings were rebuilt in stone.In this case, answering the question of when is built the Moscow Kremlin, the year can be called a very different - 1485. In the decade (1485-1495) were built unique battlements, which are the hallmark of a great complex.

priceless treasures of world architecture

As noted above, Dmitry Donskoy rebuilt in stone the original wooden Detinets (so called even in Russia the Kremlin).Actually, he built a new stone "kremnik" and the year of completion, 1367, too, can rightly be considered the date on which was built the Moscow Kremlin.Later, during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, who became the first Russian Tsar (a title he took in the Assumption Cathedral of the Kremlin), the complex itself is also rapidly being completed.

A decoration Cathedral Square - Bell Tower "Ivan the Great", without which it is difficult to imagine the Kremlin, as it has been for many years the tallest building in Moscow, generally was built during the reign of Boris Godunov.However, the first Moscow Kremlin was built in 1147 by the decree of Yuri Dolgoruky.Fortified part of the city also called "Chrome" that is better suited to a wooden teremu, surrounded by a wooden fence.The one and only, the legendary and unapproachable, the Kremlin is the embodiment of strength and uniqueness of Russia.