Feudal society was considered almost universal form of control of Eurasia.Most of the people inhabiting it passed through the system.Next, take a closer look, what a feudal society.
Despite some changes in the relationship between consumers and producers, the latter remained in the absolute dependence of the first.The feudal slave society was based on a certain way of doing business.Direct manufacturer had its own farm.However, he remained in dependence as a slave.Forcing expressed in rent.It could be presented in the form of corvee (labor-board), dues (products) or expressed in money.The size of the rent has been firmly established.This gave direct producers some freedom in the conduct of their business.These features of feudal society were particularly pronounced in the transition to positive cash payments.In this case, the farmer's freedom expressed in the opportunity to sell their products.
Signs feudal society
can identify the characteristics of such a society:
- predominance of subsistence farming;
- combination of small peasant land and large feudal land tenure;
- personal dependence of direct producers.Noneconomic forced labor and product distribution;
- routine and obsolete state of the art;
- presence of rent relations (compulsory payments were made for the use of the land).
However, there were noticeable and specific features of a feudal society:
- dominance of religious ideology (in this historical period, the church performed a special role);
- feudal society has a wide development of corporate entities;
- hierarchical structure;
- existed caste feudal society.
most clearly feudal society was developed in France.However, this system no longer apply to the state, rather than the economic structure of the country.However, it was in France very clearly formed class of feudal society.They were presented as a vassal of the stairs.Its economic sense was imprisoned in forced redistribution of payments between the layers of the ruling class.By order of the suzerain vassal collected the militia at his own expense.It guarded the limits and represented, in fact, the device for non-economic coercion of the peasants.Such a system, for which there was a feudal society, often faltering.As a result, France has become a platform for national and civil wars.Especially hard the country was experiencing the effects of the war with England 14-15 centuries.However, it was the war accelerated the liberation of the peasants from dependence.This was due to the fact that the king needed the soldiers.Resource for mass mercenary army with artillery, it could become free peasants.Despite the introduction of redemption, the economic situation of addicted people do not actually improved as taxes and redemption payments have replaced the feudal rent.
It should be noted that by the 14th century France conditionally divided into several zones.For example, the central and northern part of the main considered the breadbasket of southern - the base wine.At the same time it became manifest superiority of one of the areas economically.In particular, in northern France became the approved three-field system.
Features of economic development of England
feudal society of the country had several differences from the French system.In England, the centralization of management was more pronounced.This was due to the country's feudal conquest in 1066.General census was conducted.It showed that the structure of feudal society with estates at that time was built.However, unlike the French, the English owners were vassals of the king directly.A further feature, which has an English feudal society, concerns the technological basis of the estate.The favorable environment has contributed to coastal active development of sheep farming and the production of raw wool.The latter is the subject of great demand throughout medieval Europe.Selling wool, which was carried out not only feudal lords, but also peasants, contributed to replacing the labor of serfs - wage work, and natural dues - rents in monetary terms (switching).
turning point in 1381 was the national uprising led by Wat Tyler.As a result, there was almost complete switching, and after the purchase of the peasants and their own feudal obligations.Almost all dependent people have become personally free to the 15th century.They were divided into two categories: homage and freeholders.The first paid rent for the plots, while the latter were considered absolutely free to the holders of the land.Thus was formed the gentry - new nobility - who led the economic activity only on wage labor.
system development in Germany
In this country, the structure of feudal society was formed later than in France and England.The fact that the individual areas of Germany were cut off from each other, in connection with this single state has not developed.Equally important were the Slavic lands grabs German feudal lords.This has contributed to a significant increment of the cultivated area.Over time, it began to develop the internal colonization of the territorial districts of peasants east of the Elbe.They were provided favorable conditions and minimum dependence on the feudal lords.However, in the 15th century owners of estates eastern part of Germany, took advantage of the export of grain to England and the Netherlands through the Baltic ports and implemented the absolute enslavement privileged peasants.The owners have created an extensive plowing and transferred them to serfdom.The term "land beyond the Elbe" came to symbolize the development of late feudalism.
Features of the system in Japan
The economy of this country has been a lot different from the European.First of all, in Japan there was no master's plowing.Consequently, there was no serfdom or serfdom.Secondly, the economy of Japan acted within established for centuries of feudal fragmentation.In a country dominated by small peasant farms, based on the hereditary possession of the land.She, in turn, owned by the feudal lords.As rents advocated natural rents of rice.Because of feudal fragmentation formed a lot of principalities.When they attended servicemen troops, which consisted of samurai knights.As a reward for serving soldiers received rations of rice from the princes.His estates samurai had.As for Japanese cities in them occurred feudal device, as well as in Europe.Craftsmen were united in the shop, the merchants - in the guild.Enough has been poorly developed trade.The lack of a single market due feudal disunity.Japan was closed to foreigners.Manufacture in the country is in its infancy.
Features of the device system in Russia
classes of feudal society were formed relatively late compared to other countries.In the 15th century there was an army servicemen.His were the landowners (nobles).They were the owners of estates and expense every summer went to the emergency service.By autumn they go home.The transfer of estates was carried from father to son by inheritance.In accordance with the Council Code of 1649, the peasants were permanently attached to the possessions of the territory where they lived, becoming serfs.In Europe, by which time many of the members of this class becomes free.As the duties performed labor rent.In the 17th century boon could be up to 4 days a week.By the second half of the 16th century began the formation of large regional markets and the 17th centenary of trade relations have gained nationwide.In the northwestern part of the state became the center of Novgorod.It was an aristocratic republic, which was dominated by the wealthy classes of feudal society.These representatives, in particular, the merchants and landowners (nobles).The bulk of the Novgorod population consisted of "black people" - craftsmen.Among the most important livestock markets at that time is to provide Yaroslavl, Vologda, Kazan.The main center of trade in the whole country is Moscow.It sold fur, silk, woolen products, metal products, bread, bacon, and other victuals and domestic goods.
Subsistence farming was the main form of business.This is different early feudal society.Capitalist production began to emerge on the basis of simple co-operation, and then the factory.In a simple service turnover became involved money.These funds are involved in the movement of usury and merchant capital.Banks began to emerge.Initially, they were the repository of money.Developing money-changing business.Since the 18th century, began to spread payments for merchant transactions.Due to the increasing needs of the budget began to be formed.
The development of domestic and foreign trade greatly influenced the growth of cities in the West European territory.They formed primarily local market.There was exchanged articles urban and rural artisans.In the 14-15 th centuries, began to form a single market.They have become a kind of economic centers of feudal states.Among the largest note London and Paris.The internal trade was quite underdeveloped.This was due to the natural character of the economy.In addition, the development of domestic trade slowed by fragmentation, due to which the duties collected in each senor.The merchants of a certain type of product merchants united in guilds.These closed association regulate the rules and structure of the market turnover.