XIX Ecumenical Council of Trent 1545-1563 was one of the most important milestones of Catholicism.Most accepted the dogmas of half a millennium later, remain valid.High Assembly of the spiritual leaders of the Catholic Church gathered at the height of the Reformation, when disgruntled abuse and a life of luxury churchmen northern Europeans refused to recognize the authority of the Pope.The Council of Trent, and the most important results of his work were decisive "offensive" to the reformers, marking a milestone Counter-Reformation of the XVI century.
spiritual background of the conflict
Catholic Church to the end of the XV century, concentrated in its hands a lot of land and amassed great wealth.In Europe, the prevalence was tithe - a tenth of the recovery of the profits from the crop, or cash income.Church lived lavishly, at a time when a significant portion of the believers was poor.This fact undermined the foundations of the faith, the authority of the church.In addition, the popes are widely deployed sale of indulgences - special diplomas "for the remission of sins."For a certain amount of indulgence person, regardless of the seriousness of the offense shall be exempt from all sin.Such sales displeased believers.Center of the Reformation made Germany, which was then fragmented and looked like a "patchwork quilt".Against this unfavorable background, and it was decided to convene the Council of Trent.
significant damage to the credibility of the Catholic Church dealt humanism.Its leader was Erasmus.The pamphlet "Praise of Folly" humanist sharply condemned shortcomings and ignorance of the clergy.Another figure of German humanism was Ulrich von Hutten, who held the papal Rome opponent of German reunification.I should add that caused irritation among the believers, and that was the Latin language of worship which ordinary parishioners did not understand.
Reformation Reformation has become a global challenge to the fundamentals of the Catholic Church.Most of it is directed against the decision of the Reformation were the Council of Trent.The original idea was to hold a joint meeting of the Council chaired by the Pope and the leaders of the Reformation.However, dialogue rather scholastic dispute failed.
31 October 1517, Martin Luther nailed to the door of the Wittenberg Church his "95 Theses", sharply condemned the sale of indulgences.In a short time, tens of thousands of people have become advocates of the ideas of Luther.In 1520, the Pope issued a bull of excommunication from the Church of the monk.Luther publicly burned her, which meant the final break with Rome.Martin Luther did not object to the church, he wanted to make it easier.The postulates of the reformers were clear to all:
- priests could marry, wearing ordinary clothes, must obey the laws common to all.
- Lutheran church refused to icons and sculptures of Christ and the Virgin.
- Bible - the only source of Christian faith.
birth of Protestantism
Emperor Charles V decided to intervene in the case.In 1521, Luther arrived at the Reichstag in Worms.There he was asked to renounce his views, but Luther refused.Outraged emperor left the meeting.On the way home was attacked by Luther but Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony rescued him, hidden in his castle.Lack of Martin Luther did not stop the Reformation.
In 1529 Emperor Charles V of apostates asked to comply exclusively Catholic religion on the territory of the Holy Roman Empire (in fact - Germany).But the 5 principalities, with the support of 14 cities protested.Since then, the supporters of the Reformation, Catholics began to be called Protestants.
attack on the Reformation
Throughout its long history, the Catholic Church did not know such a profound shock that was for her the Reformation.With the support of the Catholic rulers of the Papal Rome began an active struggle with the "Protestant heresy."The system of measures aimed at halting and elimination of Reformation ideas and movements, called the Counter-Reformation.The trigger of these events was the Council of Trent in 1545.
launched an attack on the Reformation was marked by a revival of the medieval Inquisition, in the outbreak that killed hundreds of "Protestant heretics."Inquisitors took control of publishing.Without their permission it was impossible to print a single work, and "bad" literature brings a special "index of forbidden books" and was subject to burning.
Reformation split the Catholic world in half, but in the middle of the XVI century, Europeans had hoped that the situation can still be corrected.It is only necessary to seeking reconciliation both sides have taken a step towards each other.So thought not only ordinary believers, but also part of the cardinals and bishops.From their environment more insistent voices of those who called on the Holy See to reform the church.
popes hesitated a long time before agreeing to the conversion.Finally, in 1545, Pope Paul III convene an ecumenical council.Venue of the Council of Trent refers to the city of Trento (Italy).It took place intermittently until 1563, ie for 18 years.
victory of the reformers of the Catholic Church
From the outset, participants in the council split into two groups - supporters of Catholic reform and its opponents.In the fierce debate last won.Under their pressure, the major decisions were adopted by the Council of Trent, to fix the position of the Catholic faith for centuries.
Papacy had to cancel the sale of indulgences, and to ensure the future of the Catholic Church to create a network of theological seminaries.These walls have to prepare a new type of Catholic priests that their education is not inferior to the Protestant preachers.
Trent: its meaning and implications
Cathedral was a response to Protestantism, Catholicism.It was convened by Pope Paul III in 1542, but because of the Franco-German war, the first meeting took place only in 1945.The cathedral was held by three popes.A total of 25 meetings, but only in 13 sessions take vital decisions concerning faith, customs or disciplinary rules.
Trent belongs to the most significant in the history of the Catholic Church.Made at a meeting relating to the tenets of the set of fundamental issues.For example, it was identified sources of faith, the canon of books approved by the Holy Scriptures.At the Council discussed some dogma that Protestants rejected.On the basis of the discussions it has been revised related to indulgences.
The issues of the sacraments of Baptism and Confirmation, Evrahistii and penance, the sacrament of the sacrifice of St.Liturgy marriage.This series was completed dogmatic decision of purgatory, the veneration of saints, and so on.
Pope Pius IX approved the conciliar decrees of 1564.After his death, Pope St.Pius V issued a catechism Council confirmed, updated and updated missal Missal.
Council of Trent: the major decisions
- Firmness of the church hierarchy, the Mass and confession.
- Saving the seven sacraments, worship the holy icons.
- Confirmation mediating role of the church and the supreme power of the Pope within it.
Trent laid the foundation for updating and strengthening the Catholic Church discipline.It showed that the gap with Protestantism became final.
Teachings of the Council of Trent on the Eucharist
Council of Trent (1545-1563) addressed the issue of the Eucharist during the whole period of its implementation.They adopted three important decree
- «Decree on the Holy Eucharist" (1551).
- «Decree on communion and communion of two kinds of little children» (16.VII.1562).
- «Decree on the Most Holy Sacrifice of the Mass" (17 H.1562).
Trent protect, above all, the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist and the way it appears under the presence of images of wine and bread at the dedication - «transubstantiatio».Of course, this was a common way of finding out, because around a detailed explanation of exactly how this happens «transubstantiatio», there were disputes among theologians.
was assumed that Christ is present in the Eucharist, after the liturgy, if still consecrated body and blood.This was confirmed by the Council of Trent.It was also confirmed by a substantial identity between the victim and the victim of the Holy Service of Christ on the cross.
After the Council of Trent theologians again concentrated on a narrow vision of the Eucharist: in the presence of Christ and on the sacrificial nature of the Mass.This approach urged Protestants to their cause.Especially a lot said about the victim mass, and though he never denied that it is the only sacrifice of Jesus Christ, the excessive emphasis of the Service sacrifice in itself might give the impression that the sacrifice divorced from that - history.In addition, excessive emphasis on the priest during the service of the Eucharist is a "second Christ", has significantly reduced the role of loyal people during the liturgy.
approved the Council of Trent dogmas largely unchanged survived.The Catholic Church lives according to the laws adopted 500 years ago.That is why the Council of Trent, many considered the most important since the division of a single church in the Catholic and Protestant.