Middle Ages - a period of extensive development of European society, covering the 5-15 th century AD.The era after the fall of the great Roman Empire, over - the beginning of the industrial revolution in England.During these ten centuries Europe has come a long way of development, characterized by great migration of peoples, the formation of the main European countries and the emergence of the most beautiful historic monuments - the Gothic cathedrals.
What is characteristic of medieval society
Each historical epoch has its own unique features.The historical period is no exception.
The era of the Middle Ages - is:
- agrarian economy - most people worked in agriculture;
- predominance of the rural population of the city (especially in the early period);
- a huge role of the church;
- Christian observance of the commandments;
- formation of nation-states;
- culture: Gothic cathedrals, folklore, poetry.
Middle Ages - is what century?
Epoch is divided into three main periods:
- Early - 5-10 th centuries.n.e.
- High - 10-14 th centuries.n.e.
- later - 14-15 minutes (16th) century.n.e.
question "Middle Ages - which is the world?" Does not have a clear answer, there is only approximate figures - the point of view of a group of historians.
Three periods seriously differ from each other: at the beginning of a new era Europe was experiencing troubled times - times of instability and fragmentation in the late 15th century society was formed with its distinctive cultural and traditional values.
eternal dispute official science with an alternative
Sometimes you can hear the statement: "Antiquity - Middle Ages it."An educated man grabbed his head, he heard a misconception.Official science believes that the Middle Ages - an era, which began after the capture of the Western Roman Empire by the barbarians in the 5th century.n.e.
However, alternative historians (Fomenko) do not share the point of view of official science.In their circle can hear the statement: "Antiquity - Middle Ages it."It will be told not from ignorance, but from a different perspective.Whom to believe and who not - you decide.We share the view of the official history.
How it all began: the collapse of the great Roman Empire
capture of Rome by the barbarians - this is a serious historical event was the beginning of the Middle Ages in Europe.
Empire existed for 12 centuries, during that time have accumulated invaluable experience and knowledge of people who have sunk into oblivion after the wild tribes of the East Goths, Huns and Gauls captured its western part (476 BC. E.).
process was gradual: first, out of control out of Rome occupied the province, and then fell Center.The eastern part of the empire, with its capital in Constantinople (now Istanbul) lasted until the 15th century.
After the capture and sack of Rome by the barbarians Europe plunged into the dark ages.Despite significant setbacks and confusion, the families have been reunited to create a separate state and a unique culture.
Early Middle Ages - is the era of the "dark ages" 5-10 th centuries.n.e.
During this period, the former province of the Roman Empire became sovereign states;leader of the Huns, Goths and Franks declared themselves dukes, counts, and other major titles.Surprisingly, people believed the most authoritative personalities and take their power.
As it turned out, the barbarian tribes were not so wild as much as you can afford to assume they had the beginnings of statehood and knew at a primitive level metallurgy.
This period was also notable for the fact that there were three estates:
For people treated peasants, artisans and merchants.More than 90% of people living in villages and worked in the fields.Type of economic activity was agricultural.
High Middle Ages - 10-14 th centuries.n.e.
heyday of culture.The first is characterized by the formation of a certain world view, characteristic of medieval man.The horizon has expanded: there was a picture of the beautiful, that it makes sense in being, and the world is beautiful and harmonious.
Religion played an enormous role - people worshiped God, go to church and tried to follow biblical values.
establish stable trade relations between East and West: traders and travelers returning from distant lands, bringing porcelain, carpets, spices and new impressions of exotic Asian countries.All this contributed to the overall improvement of education in Europe.
During this period there was the image of the man-knight, who to this day is the most ideal girls.However, there is a certain nuances showing neodnoznanost his figure.On the one hand, a knight was a brave and courageous warrior, Bishop sworn to defend their country.This was rather cruel and unprincipled - the only way to fight the hordes of savage barbarians.
He certainly was a "lady", for which he fought.Summing up, we can say that a knight - a highly controversial figure, consisting of virtues and vices.
late Middle Ages - 14-15 minutes (16th) century.n.e.
Western historians believe the end of the Middle Ages, the discovery of America by Columbus (October 12, 1492).Russian historians have a different opinion - the beginning of the industrial revolution in the 16th century.
The Autumn of the Middle Ages (the second name of the late epoch) was characterized by the formation of large cities.Also, there were large-scale peasant uprising - in the end it became a free class.
Europe suffered a serious loss of life due to the plague.The disease took a lot of lives, the population of some cities has fallen by half.
Late Middle Ages - a period logical conclusion rich era in European history, which lasted about the Millennium.
Hundred Years' War: Joan of Arc image
Late Middle Ages - it is the conflict between England and France, which lasted more than a hundred years.
serious event, given a vector of development in Europe, was the Hundred Years War (1337-1453.).It was not really a war and not entirely centenary.It is more logical given the historical event called the confrontation between Britain and France, sometimes passing into an active phase.
all started with a dispute over Flanders, when the King of England was the claim to the French crown.First success accompanied the UK: small peasant detachments of archers defeated the French knights.But then a miracle happened: Joan of Arc was born.
This slender girl with male posture was well mannered and youth versed in military affairs.She managed to spiritually unite the French and the British to fight back as a result of two things:
- she sincerely believed that it is possible;
- she called to unite all French people in the face of the enemy.
result of the Hundred Years' War was the victory of France, Joan of Arc and went down in history as a national heroine.
Middle Ages is complete the process of adding the majority of the European states and the formation of the European society.
Results era for European civilization
historical period of the Middle Ages - it is the most interesting one thousand years of development of Western civilization.If the same person first visited in the early Middle Ages, and then moved to the 15th century, he would have learned the same place, so significant were the changes.
list briefly the main outcomes of the Middle Ages:
- emergence of large cities;
- universities spread across Europe;
- the adoption of Christianity by the majority of European citizens;
- scholasticism Aurelius Augustine and Thomas Aquinas;
- unique culture of the Middle Ages - the architecture, literature and art;
- readiness of Western society to a new stage of development.
Culture Middle Ages
Middle Ages is - is primarily a characteristic of the culture.Under it meant a broad concept, which includes the intangible and tangible achievement of the people of that era.These include:
It was in this era were built many famous European cathedrals.Medieval craftsmen creating architectural masterpieces in two distinctive styles: Romanesque and Gothic.
first originated in Western Europe in the 11-13 th centuries.This architectural trend differed rigor and severity.Churches and castles in the Romanesque style still inspire a sense of the dark Middle Ages.The most famous is the Bamberg Cathedral.
Gothic style does not leave anyone indifferent: subtlety and sublimity Gothic buildings surprises.
Homeland Gothic - France.Around the 12th century began to appear the first buildings in this style.They are distinguished by elegant moldings, toward the sky, and lots of stained glass glare.
experienced traveler will find many Gothic cathedrals and town halls in western Europe.However, we focus on the most famous:
- Notre Dame;
- Strasbourg Cathedral;
- Cologne Cathedral.
Literature European Literature of the Middle Ages is a symbiosis of Christian poetry, ancient thought and folk epic.No one genre of world literature can not be compared with the books and ballads written by medieval writers.
Some stories about the battles are worth!Often gets interesting phenomenon: people involved in major battles of the Middle Ages (for example, the Battle of Ganstingse), inadvertently became writers: they were the first witnesses of the events.
famous medieval authors were:
- Aurelius (Blessed) Augustine - the father of scholasticism.Connected with the idea of God of ancient philosophy in his "City of God."
- Dante Alighieri - a brilliant representative of medieval poetry.He wrote "The Divine Comedy."
- Jean Marot - wrote prose.Famous work - "Textbook princesses and noble ladies."
Middle Ages - this is the era of chivalry and beautiful literature.On the way of life, customs and traditions of the people you can learn from books writers.
cities grew, built churches, respectively, and there was demand for ornamental decoration of buildings.First, it concerns large urban buildings and then houses of wealthy people.
Middle Ages - a period of the European painting.
On most famous paintings depicting biblical scenes - Virgin and Child with the Whore of Babylon, "The Annunciation" and so on.Spread triptychs (three small paintings in one) and diptrihi (two paintings in one).Artists painted the walls of the chapel, the town hall, painted stained glass windows for churches.
Medieval art is inextricably linked with Christianity and the worship of the Virgin Mary.Masters portrayed her in different ways but we can say one thing - these pictures are amazing.
Middle Ages - the time between the ancient and modern history.It is this era paved the way for the industrial revolution and the great geographical discoveries.