What are the stages in its development passes society?Before answering this question, we note that the socio-historical development of it - is a multilateral process, it is extremely difficult.It occurs over a fairly long period of history and involves political, legal, economic, intellectual, spiritual, moral and many other components that make up some integrity.Many scientists have tried to give their answer to the question of what steps in its development goes society.In this article we consider the basic theory and the classification proposed by well-known researchers on the subject.
specificity of the sociological study of the historical development of society
sociological study of this concept is difficult, firstly, because it is difficult to distinguish actual social aspect.Also difficult to determine the actual content of the notion of "social development" in the course of the historical process.And all this needs to be done to answer the question: "What are the stages in its development passes society?"Researchers usually concentrate their attention on the social and historical development of a social subject.They can act as an individual, a certain company (eg Russian), and a group of companies (Latin America, Europe), the nation, social group, social institution (family, education system), the social organization.It can also be a combination of the (national economic enterprises, political parties, trade and industrial companies).However, we are only interested in the question of what steps in its development goes society.
Civilization and the type of society
greatest interest in sociology is the social and historical development of the society as an integral social units.Of course, it consists of the development of individual classes, social groups, institutions, organizations, and communities.However, at each stage of the socio-historical development of a particular company is integrity, for the analysis and description of which are usually used different concepts.They can be divided into two groups - "civilization" and "type of society."These concepts characterize the qualitative state at different stages of social and historical development.They need to give a definition to answer the question: "What are the stages held company in its development?"
term "type of society"
Under this concept means a system of structural units (institutions, social groups, communities, etc.), interacting with each other and interconnected by some social ideals, norms, values, common to them.
There are different types of classification societies.The most elementary - their division into complex and simple.Her back to the 19th century suggested that Herbert Spencer.
Answering a question on what steps takes society in its development, this scientist has put forward the view that societies are moving with the times of the state of so-called indefinite homogeneity to the opposite - a certain heterogeneity, with increasing integration and differentiation of the individual, social relations and culture.Immediately, we note that the division is rather arbitrary.After all, even the simplest society - a very complex organism.Even less obvious is that relating to the primitive society organized society much easier than, for example, the development of modern.Therefore, classification Spencer is very inaccurate.
division of society into an industrial and traditional
But Spencer was not the only one who gave the answer to the question: "What are the stages held company in its development?"One of the most common by far is the classifications formulated by Auguste Comte, KA Saint-Simon, Emile Durkheim and other sociologists division into industrial and traditional.Usually the concept of "traditional society" is used to designate stages of development, which are the pre-capitalist.That is a set of people at this time has not yet developed an industrial complex.It is based largely on the agricultural economy.Such a society is socially immobile.From one generation to the traditional patterns of behavior and forms of life are transmitted virtually unchanged.As a result of industrialization is industrial society.It generates urbanization, mass literacy, professional specialization.Such a society is based mainly on the industrial economy.It developed system of social-class and industrial division of labor.It is dynamic, characterized by constant technological and scientific and technological innovations and inventions, a high level of mobility.
Wallerstein Historical systems
There are other opinions on what stage in its development goes society.The short answer to this question is based on the opinion of one of the leading modern Western sociologists, Wallerstein, can be given as follows.This scientist considers it necessary allocation of historical systems.Each of these systems is based on some type of division of labor.It develops a variety of institutions (socio-cultural, political, economic) that determine ultimately the implementation of the basic principles of this system, the socialization of groups and individuals.Wallerstein argues that one can find various kinds of historical systems.One of them - has existed for about 500-600 years the capitalist world economy (modern).Another - the Roman Empire.The third is located in Central America, Mayan structures.Small historical systems abound.From the perspective of the researcher, a real change in society happens when begins the transition from one historical system to another.It is not the action of a variety of internal conflicts defined by its disappearance.Ineffective way of functioning paves the way for another, better way.
Selection of different types of societies allows researchers from different angles, from different positions and in different aspects to study the social and historical development and to consider it as a process of multi-faceted, with a variety of performance and features.
main socio-historical types of societies
To sum up the above and other views of sociologists and philosophers, economists and historians, we can distinguish briefly, in schematic form, the following socio-historical types (stages of development of human society):
- available by collecting the gifts of nature and hunting communities of hunters and gatherers;
- carrying out artificial cultivation of plants and cultivation of the land agricultural society;
- based on the breeding of different species of animals cattle;
- mainly based on handicraft and traditional agricultural production (in them there are private property, the city, state power, classes, trade, writing);
- based mainly on the production of industrial machinery industrial societies;
- replacing industrial postindustrial.
In the past, as noted by many authors, it is the economic basis for the production of not only various physical goods as information, knowledge, and service industries.
In general, this typology, which describes the main stages of the development of society, accepted widely enough representatives of humanities and social sciences in different countries.It is often used to construct more specialized and detailed concepts of social and historical development.
concept of "civilization"
In sociology, social philosophy and cultural studies also highlight the types of cultural and social structure of society using the concept of "civilization".However, if the type of society especially emphasizes the nature of social relations, relations and structures, the concept of civilization as the emphasis is on the spiritual, social, cultural and religious features of different societies.
close to this concept as a term coined in the 19th century Danilevsky, a Russian sociologist and philosopher ("cultural-historical type").This researcher of the first thinkers tried to get away from the conventional image of socio-historical development only as linear, planar process.He believed that the people form the cultural and historical types, which differ greatly among themselves.He considered the main criteria for selection types "affinity of language", territorial, religious, psihoetnograficheskoe unity, political independence, form of economic activity, as well as some other features.Danilevsky (pictured below) are among the types of Assyrian-Babylonian, Chinese, Egyptian, Iranian, Indian, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, Roman, European (German and Roman).
Each of them is in the development stage of the life cycle, such as the origin, development, flourishing, decline.After that, a new cultural-historical type comes to the forefront of the history of our planet.According Danilevsky, the emergence of Slavic civilization going on for several centuries.It is characterized by their current stage of development of society.He predicted a great future Slavic civilization.The concept Danilevsky, despite the political conservatism and a number of theoretical naivete valuable because it provides a non-linear image of the historical development of society.It presupposes the existence of historical digressions, zigzags, even significant destruction of cultural values accumulated previously.
Later, the idea of cyclical development was continued in the works of Spengler, the German philosopher, and especially Toynbee, English historian.According to Toynbee, every civilization (and it is in the history of mankind civilization numbered 21, including 13 major) in its development passes a closed life cycle.It moves from the birth to the death and decomposition.Toynbee identifies 5 major civilizations: Russian, Western, Islamic, Indian and Chinese.He paid particular attention to the reasons for dying civilization.Toynbee, in particular, believed that the support of the life force of a particular culture, its "creative elite" is in some point unable to address emerging historical and socio-economic problems.It turns into an alienated minority of the population that dominates him no right of authority, and rightly strong power.Ultimately, the researchers believe these processes will destroy civilization.
Now you know what steps takes society in its economic development according to Arnold Toynbee.
concept of civilization in the sociology
in the sociology (and, more generally in the humanities and social sciences) in recent years becoming increasingly widespread notion of civilization, when it is necessary to characterize the socio-historical development.This is due mainly to the fact that the Marxist concept, prevailed completely in the Soviet social science, according to which there are stories of socio-economic formations, has been rejected by most social scientists as a simplified and overly politicized.The concept of civilization is currently used in domestic scientific literature in three main values:
- following the barbaric stage of socio-cultural development of society;
- sociocultural type (Russian, European, Chinese, Japanese and other civilizations);
- as the highest level of technology today, socio-economic, political and cultural development.
At school we first acquainted with what stages in its development goes society.Grade 8 - it's time to study the issue.However, in the school the subject are fairly superficial.This article gave a detailed answer to the question of what steps takes society.It can be used for preparation for classes and exams, not only students, but also students.