history of mankind - a short list of powerful empires and innumerable wars.In the XVI century in its heyday was the Ottoman empire.According to numerous testimonies, it is politically, economically, and most importantly, militarily superior to all other state entities that time.
«In those distant times, now epic»
Byzantium fell under the onslaught of the Turks, they were coming inexorably to the northwest.Scattered principalities, counties and kingdoms (which at that time and was Europe) could not counter this onslaught of nothing.
Meanwhile in the East matured another force.It would not have scolded Ivan the Terrible, however maniac had no idea of the king in the school curriculum, the Emperor, he was a talented and augmentation Radel territories while engaged in the reform of the army and the centralization of power.
Tatars represented a threat for the country.Large fans to burn, rob anyone as neighbors do not like, that the young king (Ivan IV was barely 17 when he conquered Kazan in 1552-m) set out to conquer new lands and succeeded.Four years later he took another restless Ruricovich and Astrakhan and was in close proximity to the Crimea, who tied the vassal relations with the powerful Ottoman Empire.
Sultan offered the Tsar of Muscovy patronage - he refused.Nothing good Russian government is not promised, but the time has not come decisive battle: in 1572, the Battle of the young, and unprecedented defeat of the Tatars were still ahead.For decades Crimeans behaved quite rowdy manner, and in 1571 the Tatars take serious training trip to Russia, and it was successful.
Devlet Giray troops succeeded (with the help of traitors) to cross the Oka, to reach Moscow and burn the wooden town - survived only stone Kremlin.Terrible in the capital was not: he learned what had happened after, and the news was not encouraging: in addition to property damage and heavy losses in killed and crippled, a prisoner of the Tartars turned tens of thousands of Russian.
perpetrators sloping head, the king began to think of a sad thought.According to some accounts, was even willing to withdraw from the newfound Astrakhan and Kazan, but, inspired by the success, the Khan Devlet Giray did not want to settle for crumbs: deciding that the Russian still skiff, he will not settle for less than all the Russian territory at once.
In 1572, he went back to Moscow, has prepared more thoroughly.According to various sources, the army of the khan has no less than 80 (according to other sources, 120) thousand, plus the Sultan podsobil 7 thousand Janissaries, and because it was the color of the Ottoman army.Skin of not killed bear was shared even before the move in a way: he Devlet Giray has repeatedly stated that he was going "to the kingdom," and between influential Murzas were pre-painted Russian land.
And all began so nicely ...
company could well succeed in turning the history of Russia a completely different direction.It is impossible to understand why in school history did not appear in 1572: the battle of young, apparently literally saved the country and knows about it only a narrow circle of specialists.
the beaten track Tatars, virtually unopposed, reached the Oka.At the frontier of Kolomna and Serpukhov they met 20000th detachment under the command of Prince M. Vorotynsky.Devlet Giray army into battle did not come.Khan posted about 2 thousand troops to Serpukhov, and the main forces have moved up the river.
vanguard commanded nobleman Tereberdeya reached Senkin ford and calmly crossed the river, passing partly dispersed, partly by sending to the fathers, two hundred defenders cordon.
remaining forces crossed near the village Drakino.Polk Prince Odoevskogo number about 1,200 notable resistance could also have - Russian were defeated, and Devlet Giray quietly proceeded directly to Moscow.
Vorotynsky took a desperate decision, combined with the considerable risk: according to the king's orders, the governor had to shut Khan Muravskiy Way and hurry to the river Zhizdra, which was to be reunited with the main Russian army.
Prince thought otherwise and went in pursuit of the Tatars.Those traveling safely, greatly stretched and lose vigilance, until came the fateful date - 30 (according to other sources, 29th) of July (1572).Battle of the young has become an irreversible reality when Governor Dmitry decisive Khvorostinin with a detachment in 2000 (according to other data, 5000) People caught Tatars and made a surprise attack on the Khan's army rearguard.Enemies tremble: the attack appeared to have an unpleasant (and - worse yet - a sudden) surprise.
When brave Khvorostinin crashed into the bulk of the forces of the enemy, they did not panic and fought back, drawing Russian flight.Not knowing, however, that it has been carefully thought out: Dmitri Ivanovich enemies led straight to carefully prepare the troops Vorotynsky.Then began the battle near the village of Young in 1572 for the country which had the most serious consequences.
You can imagine how surprised Tatars to find a so-called walking-city - ukrepsooruzhenie created by all the rules of that time: a thick panels installed on the carts, nestled firmly defended them soldiers.Inside the "walk-city" has a gun (Ivan the Terrible was a great admirer of firearms and the army their supplied to the last request of military science), archers, armed with arquebuses, archers and others.
Sound of battle
enemy immediately treated allthat laid up for his arrival: a terrible bloody battle ensued.Approached more and more Tatar forces - and catered directly to the slaughter organized by the Russian (in fairness it should be noted that not only them: on a par with local fighting and mercenaries, in those days it was common practice, the Germans, according to historical chronicles, porridgeIt does not spoil).
Devlet Giray did not want to risk leaving in his rear so numerous and organized force of the enemy.Again and again he threw his best to strengthen the force, but the result was not even zero - it was negative.
Does not turned into a triumph for 1572: Battle of the young continued for the fourth day, when the Tatar commander ordered his troops to dismount and, together with the Ottoman janissaries Russian attack.Furious onslaught nothing.Vorotynsky squad, despite the hunger and thirst (when Prince indulged in pursuit of the Tatars, the Food afterthought), were killed.
In war, all means are good
Enemy carried a huge loss, blood was flowing river.When will the thick twilight, Devlet Giray decided to wait until morning and already the light of the sun "put the squeeze" the enemy, but quirky and clever Vorotynsky decided that the action entitled "The Battle of the young, in 1572," should be a speedy and unhappy for the Tatars final.
Under cover of darkness the prince led part of the army behind enemy lines - next location was convenient Hollow - and struck!From the front, the guns rang out, followed by the nuclei of the enemy threw all the same Khvorostinin, sowing death among the Tatars and horror.A terrible battle was marked in 1572: the battle of the young by today's standards, and can be considered large, much of the Middle Ages even more so.
battle turned into a beating.According to various sources, Khan's army numbered from 80 to 125 thousand people.Russian inferior in the amount of three or four, but they managed to kill about three-quarters of the enemy: the battle of the young in 1572 caused the death of the vast majority of the male population of the Crimean peninsula, in fact, in the Tartar laws, all the men had to keep Khan in his conquering endeavors.
irreparable harm invaluable
According to many historians, the Khanate was never able to recover after a crushing defeat.Tangible received a flick on the nose and the Ottoman Empire, which supported Devlet Giray.Khan himself a losing battle with the young (in 1572) cost the life of his son, grandson and son.And military honor, because he had naturally skedaddle out of Moscow's blindly (chronicles and wrote: "Do not putmi not expensive") and quit after Russian continued to kill ostochertevshie for years of attacks of Tatars, and his head they went roundof blood and hatred.
is difficult to overestimate the importance that had the battle of Young (1572): implications for the future development of Russia and the whole of European civilization, were the most favorable.According to many historians, the Muslim world would get much more preferences, if there had been under the control of the territory of Muscovy.Having such a "foothold" in the Ottoman Empire would soon engulf the whole of Europe.
Value battle for Russia
Thanks to the victory of the young Russian state won a respite in endless get-together with the Tatars, received extensive territories and the beginning of the development of the "wild field" - the fertile southern lands that had the country not the last value.
course, influenced by the battle of the young (in 1572) and on the fate of the Crimean Khanate: bloodless, lishivsheesya of fighting a large part of the population, it could no longer impose the conditions of Russia and eventually in a few decades became a part of the Russian Empire.
How is it that such a significant event in the history of the state was firmly forgotten - a topic for another thesis.Still, the battle of Young (1572), in short, largest and most important victory of Russian arms, and movies about it are not removed, books, until recently, did not utter a single (only in 2004, was published essay Ananiev "Risk"), and in general the fact of the successful (and fateful both for Russia and Europe) is known for the battle is not for everyone.
"history - it is a myth to which all agree ..."
Some researchers tie such forgetfulness that Ivan the Terrible was the last representative of Rurik on the Russian throne.After he got the throne of the Romanovs - and so they tried to "damage the image of" predecessors, at the same time sending them into oblivion achievements.
citizens, the mood is more skeptical, believe that the importance of the battle Molodinskogo artificially exaggerated in favor of the current political climate.The answer to the question of who is right and who is wrong, could give a serious historical research, but the information about them is no longer present.As well as material evidence, which is generally difficult to obtain when it comes to ancient events such as the Battle of Young (1572): excavation, seems to have been conducted.The network has some mention of the archaeological investigations that took place in 60-70 years of the twentieth century, but just how true this information is unknown.