every Russian heart expensive Kulikovo Field, the place where there was one of the most crucial battles for the independence of our homeland.It was broken the myth of the invincibility of the Mongol hordes, long held captive many peoples inhabiting Eurasia.
In connection with the tragedy in Ukraine has become known both, Odessa's Kulikovo Field.What is the link between long-time battle and the death of innocent people at the hands of the nationalists?Obviously, in the presence of aggressive barbarism countered much weaker at first sight power of truth.
Honoring the heroes in the Petrine era
The Russian tradition of creating military memorial was laid the first emperor, Peter the Great.Building locks did not prevent the king to visit the site of the famous battle marked the beginning of the unification of Russian lands.The centuries-old green oak forest, cutting down the trees in which the highest command was not allowed, and became the first Russian nature reserve.This living monument became a shrine, where everyone can worship the patriotic heroism of their ancestors.Until then, the only material objects, reminiscent of the past glory, the relics were retrieved from the land cultivators.The settlers who founded the village (green oaks Tatinskie fords, Red Hill and Don) during plowing often come across fragments of swords, shields, arrowheads and crucifix heroes who took the last fight.There were also tales, legends and folk memory, passed down from generation to generation.
After World War II
rise of national consciousness that occurred after the reflection of the Napoleonic invasion, the people stirred up memories of past victories.I could not stay away and the glorious city of gunsmiths - Tula.Kulikovo Field was the object of veneration.Through the efforts of the provincial authorities, with the help of the clergy, merchants and national support is started to build the first structures, a feat immortalized squad Dmitry Donskoy.Initially, plotting large-scale construction, a double purpose: to pay tribute to the heroes of the last war with the task of conducting tours and stories about his exploits and past and perpetuate the memory of the participants of the battle, which was four more than a century.To fully implement the plan did not succeed because of a lack of money.
temples and monuments of the last century
Only in 1850 Kulikovo field, or rather, Red Hill, adorned monument by AP Briullov - obelisk erected in honor of Dmitry Donskoy.Another element of the memorial church of the Nativity of the Virgin, was designed by AG Bocharnikova almost twenty years, and was completed in 1884.But the main monument to the Orthodox, the Church of St. Sergius of Radonezh, the ensemble completed in 1917.Then, for many decades, this holy place was plunged into oblivion.The new Bolshevik government was not up to the heroes of bygone eras, they missed their ...
What famous Kulikovo field?Tula region, in whose territory took place the memorable historical event in the sixties of the last century became the site of excavation and research, which together with the already existing materials allow to scientifically based description of the course of the battle, its phases, and identify the places most intense battles.Now scientists with a high degree of probability is known, what role was played in the history of the Kulikovo Field.Museum (local history Tula) to organize exhibitions at the same time opened a specialized branch of the task that was given particular: to identify and justify the most likely hypothesis of the events of early September 1380.It was not easy, but historians have coped.
landscape of those places where the Kulikovo field, over the centuries has changed significantly.In order to restore the situation in 1830, it was necessary to re-create it on maps and models.All of the past century made deforestation, soil erodes, the relief is leveled.Nepryadva and Don become smaller, which is also hampered reconstruction.Yet you can imagine the picture, as well as restore the tactical plans of Dmitry Donskoy.
Military Council and the battle plan
known that Kulikovo Field is located five kilometers from the present village Monastyrshchino.From a military point of view, the place chosen.Given that the favorite method of the Mongol-Tatar hordes was a detour, Russian Prince expelled him from the potential arsenal of the enemy, protecting both flanks water obstacles - rivers Smolka and Lower Dubik.However, the main trick was to ambush regiment, ukryvshemsya in the Green Dubrava.It was formed from selected heroes.
Kulikovo field is large, with an area more than thirty square kilometers, but the main damage to the enemy has been applied to a small portion of it - three hundred and five hundred meters.
But even before it is ripe tactical plan, there was a council of war, which was attended by the governors and princes.Some of them, in anticipation of the difficulties associated with the intensification of the Don, offered to take the defense on the left bank, without overcoming the water hazard.To this Prince Dmitri gave an answer that in a modern adaptation would sound like this: "Better would not go against the godless forces than coming, do nothing.Today, let's go for the Don, and let's head there for our brothers! ".
Battles are rarely harvested for the plan, but this time, almost all failed.Where now stands the village Tatinkom, bridges were built, and the horsemen found fords.It was in the night of September 8, managed to keep the secrecy.
Before the battle, Prince Dmitry did not sleep, he urged the soldiers to fight bravely and did not spare himself.Misty morning was a combat deployment in three echelons.In the advanced infantry regiment was then built large regiment (the main striking force), Dmitriy commanded them personally.There was also a provision designed to support the areas in which there would be a critical situation.Camouflaged in green oak reserve regiment under the command of the governor Bobrok and Vladimir Serpukhov faced a special role.Their lives depended on actions throughout the squad and himself Dmitry.
enemy and his forces
Mamai moved slowly, confident in the power of his army.It was many and exceed those forces that could oppose rusichi.Also it had a connection with the Tartars allied squads Oleg of Ryazan and the Lithuanian prince Jogaila.An hour before noon vanguard, consisting of the Genoese mercenaries entered the Kulikovo field and took the front position in front of the Russian army.During maneuvers watched from Red Hill Mom, do not foresee any complications and surprises.Traditionally, in the neutral zone between combat troops was the best warriors.The Tartars put Chelubey against Russian monk Peresvet.The forces were equal, no one wanted to give in, killing both of the warrior.And then it began ...
Sound of battle
conflict of the battle for a long time historians have judged according to its description in the "Transdoniad" - a document written by an unknown author, perhaps, immediately after the battle, or later.Head-on collision of two armies took place with a large mutual casualty.Advanced regiment was crushed like a whip, and hay, and then it was the turn of the Big regiment, that is the main Russian forces.Shifting the main direction of the blow on the left flank, Tatars pressed him to Nepryadva threatening coverage.Mamai felt that his victory is near, but then, according to the tactical plan, hit Ambush regiment, causing panic and flee the enemy.Russian Tatars pursued, smashing them mercilessly.Upon learning of the slaughter fled and expected Mamai allies, did not join the battle.
fallen heroes buried eight days.Moscow triumphed, meeting the winners on October 1.Prince Dmitry received the title of "Don".
about strategic issues
skillful tactics leader worthy of respect, but a wise strategy worthy of the title of genius.Just looking at the map of Russia, we can understand what it meant for our history Kulikovo field.Tula region within its present borders is on the way from the Volga to the north-east of the country.Concentrated in the area of Kolomna the largest in the history of Russia military forces, Prince Dmitry decided to fight back Mom, hoping to punish recalcitrant Moscow for refusing to pay tribute and to stop its pursuit of the attainment of full sovereignty.
Horde preparing "big hike" on its future depended on the results of this predatory forces set Tatars were extremely strongly.There is no doubt that if they managed to get the upper hand on the field Kulikov, the punitive expedition would be surpassed in cruelty all the wildest speculation.In this sense the victory of Dmitry Donskoy carried a strategic character, opening the Russian historical perspective.
In recent decades
in 1980, when six centuries celebrated the anniversary of the great battle, the temple was restored St. Sergius of Radonezh.By that date, timed and Exhibition, held in the village Monastyrshchino.Many forestry workers have made to rebuild the historic appearance of the landscape.After gaining independence by Russia in the framework of the law "On Days of Military Glory" (1995) decided to establish a historical reserve "Kulikovo Field".Museum continued his scientific work, it is open to the public.The memorial complex includes a memorial cross in the Green Dubrava, Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, a monument to Dmitry Donskoy and alley Memory and Unity.
Odessa Kulikovo field
If you came out of the car at the Odessa railway station, ask a local citizen about where the Kulikovo field, you can be sure that in Tula he will not send, and will point a finger through the fence.Indeed, despite the fact that almost all the years of the Soviet Union, the area bore the name of the revolution (a first, and then that which is not thought October), all called it the old fashioned way, like with the king.
Once, two hundred years ago, the area was the outskirts of the city railway station.There was the border of Porto-Franco (today it would be called a free trade zone), marked by a moat, and in general was a vacant lot that was used to drill exercises Odessa Regiment soldiers dressed in black uniforms with red epaulettes.It is a place enjoyed a grim reputation, then executed and buried state criminals.Nearby was a prison.But by the end of the century, all these fears are gone, it is very rapidly developing countries, and with it - Odessa.Kulikovo Field was the venue of evening promenades and even amusement.
During the Civil War and intervention are once again began to bury, and all in a row.Victims of urban combat, Haidamaks, random victims, some soldiers of a foreign body were buried on the Kulikovo field and had been forgotten.Remembered in 1967, only heroes of the revolution, and he has made sorrowful squat monument near the terminus of tram 17 th and 18 th routes.City of extended very far away from that imaginary lines where Kulikovo field meant its boundary.
Later on it was built by the Regional Party Committee, then he became the House of Trade Unions.
As part of the independent Ukraine, Odessa city remained distinctive and predominantly English speaking.We can not say that the townspeople unanimously supported the "Maidan", as well as to suggest otherwise.Sympathy split spring the streets often had meetings, and not very natural, in which there were skirmishes, mostly verbal.
thing is that the residents of the south of the city (and not only them) have not asked, whether they like or not what happened in Kiev.There was a broken one soaked with the first breath of free air the principle of democracy, which has always been famous Odessa.Kulikovo Field was a place where people do not perceive the ideals of "heavenly hundred" protesting peacefully.Witnesses can confirm that no aggressive action citizens (mostly elderly) did not commit.They just stood there, quietly talking, listening to music, watching a large plasma TV, which broadcast the Russian news.For this, many of them killed.And burned.
Tragedy May 2
The official version is that after the match, "Chernomorets" with "Metalist" patriotic crowd decided to march, in which the unknown "agents of the GRU" (in the sense that it is not known whether they were agents of the GRU) opened fire with handguns.There have even been a victim, however, was unable to find them, to lie on the pavement clothing disguised bodies nationalist protesters were not allowed any police or doctors.Then they all disappeared somewhere that suggests that the victims were not so dead.Then unmanaged (seemingly) the crowd, smashing tents on the Greek area, moved in the direction of the place where they were concentrated, "the forces of evil," that is all Odessa "antimaydan."Kulikovo field in minutes filled aggressive young men, armed with petrol, plastic bottles and firearms.Having driven protesters in the House of Trade Unions, they proceeded to the main point plan - kill.Again, according to the official version, the victims burn themselves ...